Women and Minorities in Law Firms by Race and Ethnicity

NALP Bulletin, January 2009

Aggregate statistics about the representation of women and minority attorneys at law firms are widely cited,1 but these national averages do not tell the whole story. For instance, among all employers listed in the 2008-2009 NALP Directory of Legal Employers, about 6% of partners were minorities and 1.84% of partners were minority women, and yet many offices report no minority partners at all. In addition, the representation of minorities by specific race and ethnicity varies considerably by size of law firm and geography. This article takes a closer look at representation of specific minority groups at the partnership and associate levels.

Overall, minority2 groups are relatively equally represented at the partner level (Table 1). Differences are evident, however, depending on the size of the firm. For example, the presence of Black and Hispanic partners, and of Black female partners, increases with firm size, whereas Asian partners are most prevalent at smaller and the largest firms. At the city level, the presence of Black partners is highest in Atlanta, followed by Baltimore and New Orleans. The presence of Black female partners exceeds 1% in just five cities: Atlanta, Cleveland, Detroit, Ft. Lauderdale/West Palm Beach, and Washington, DC. Black partners account for 0.5% or less of partners in Grand Rapids, Orange County, CA, Portland, OR, San Diego, and Salt Lake City.

Most minority partners are Hispanic in Austin, Miami, Orlando, and Tampa/St. Petersburg. In each of these cities, the presence of female Hispanic partners is also above average. Conversely, in 15 of the 46 cities listed, fewer than 0.5% of partners are Hispanic. Asian partners - overall and women specifically - are most common in the Los Angeles and Orange County, CA areas, and in the San Francisco and San Jose areas.

Among associates, Asians account for about half of all minority associates at the national level, and also at every firm size (Table 2). As is the case with partners, cities vary a great deal on these measures. For example, Black associates are most common by far in Atlanta, Nashville, and New Orleans, followed by Detroit, Indianapolis, and Tampa. In each of these cities except Tampa, Blacks account for over half of minority associates. The percentage of Black female associates was also highest in these cities, along with Charlotte, St. Louis, and Washington, DC. Every city reported at least some Black associates, though not every city reported Black female associates.

The pattern for Hispanic associates is similar to that at the partner level, with representation highest by far in Miami, followed by Ft. Lauderdale/West Palm Beach and Austin. Percentage representation was less than 1% in several cities. The leading cities for Asian associates - both overall and for women specifically - are San Francisco and the San Jose area, followed by the Los Angeles and Orange County areas and New York City. Every city reported at least some Asian associates.

Additional insight on women and minorities at law firms comes from looking at the extent to which women and minorities are represented at each office, rather than for a city or for the nation as a whole. Thus, the fact that not quite 6% of partners as a whole are minorities does not mean that minorities make up 6% of partners at each of the more than 1,500 offices and firms represented in the Directory. In fact, as Table 3 shows, over one-third of the offices/firms reported no minority partners, and 60% reported no minority women partners. Both of these figures improve with firm size, and most offices - 88% - report at least one woman partner, but far less than half - about 43% - have more than the average 19% of women partners.

Likewise, 17% of offices/firms have no minority associates, and 40% exceed the average figures of about 19%. (See Table 4.) About 25% of offices reported no minority women associates. In each case, small firms are more likely to have no minority associates than are larger firms. About 39% of offices reported that half or more of associates were women.

******Footnotes:

1. See for example, NALP's press release "Law Firm Diversity Demographics Slow to Change" in the Research section of www.nalp.org under Press Releases.

2. Minorities as used here includes lawyers identified as Black, Hispanic, Native American, Asian, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, and multi-racial. The very few Native American, Native Hawaiian, and multi-racial lawyers are not reported out separately.


Table 1. Partner Demographics at Law Firms--2008

  Partners by Race or Ethnicity  
  All Partners Asian Black/African American Hispanic  
  Total # %
Minority
% Minority
Women
Total % %
Women
Total % %
Women
Total % %
Women
# of
Offices
Total 61,572 5.92 1.84 2.05 0.71 1.71 0.56 1.68 0.42 1,572
 
By Size of Firm:
50 or fewer lawyers 2,205 4.94 1.86 2.00 0.91 0.91 0.36 1.27 0.41 137
51-100 lawyers 5,492 5.64 1.84 2.44 0.98 1.20 0.35 1.29 0.33 159
101-250 lawyers 15,396 4.68 1.45 1.39 0.51 1.39 0.47 1.33 0.32 296
251-500 lawyers 12,694 5.18 1.60 1.42 0.54 1.76 0.58 1.73 0.39 348
501-700 lawyers 7,369 6.31 1.95 2.17 0.66 2.10 0.68 1.57 0.41 195
701+ lawyers 18,416 7.50 2.27 2.88 0.92 2.05 0.65 2.14 0.57 437
 
Offices in:
Atlanta 1,795 6.52 2.12 1.06 0.33 4.12 1.56 0.95 0.22 41
Austin 479 9.60 3.34 1.25 0.84 1.88 0.63 5.64 1.88 21
Baltimore 566 4.24 1.06 0.53 0.35 3.18 0.35 0.35 0.35 11
Birmingham 433 2.54 0.92 0.23 0.00 2.31 0.92 0.00 0.00 10
Boston area 2,009 3.38 1.19 1.24 0.70 1.00 0.10 0.80 0.25 40
Charlotte 728 4.26 1.37 0.82 0.27 1.92 0.82 1.24 0.14 24
Chicago 4,509 5.68 2.00 2.26 0.82 1.86 0.67 1.33 0.38 69
Cincinnati 459 1.74 0.44 0.22 0.00 1.09 0.22 0.22 0.22 12
Cleveland 685 4.09 1.61 1.46 0.58 2.04 1.02 0.15 0.00 14
Columbus 556 4.32 0.54 1.08 0.18 2.34 0.36 0.18 0.00 12
Dallas 1,477 5.82 1.56 1.56 0.47 1.08 0.27 2.51 0.68 38
Denver 749 5.21 1.74 1.07 0.40 0.93 0.27 2.00 0.40 32
Detroit area 1,045 4.40 1.44 0.77 0.19 2.87 1.05 0.57 0.00 15
Ft. Lauderdale/W. Palm Beach 189 6.35 1.59 0.53 0.53 2.12 1.06 3.70 0.00 13
Grand Rapids 445 1.12 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.45 0.00 0.67 0.00 10
Hartford 297 3.03 1.35 1.01 0.67 1.35 0.34 0.34 0.34 13
Houston 1,390 7.34 2.01 1.22 0.29 2.16 0.72 3.09 0.72 43
Indianapolis 624 2.72 0.80 0.64 0.16 1.60 0.32 0.48 0.32 9
Kansas City area 681 2.50 0.73 0.15 0.15 1.03 0.15 0.44 0.15 11
Las Vegas 188 2.66 0.53 0.53 0.00 0.53 0.53 1.06 0.00 18
Los Angeles area 2,652 12.03 3.81 5.92 1.85 2.04 0.57 3.28 1.24 92
Miami 753 21.51 5.98 0.40 0.13 1.99 0.66 18.73 4.91 22
Milwaukee 731 2.87 1.09 0.41 0.27 0.96 0.27 1.09 0.41 9
Minneapolis/St. Paul 1,347 2.75 0.82 0.89 0.37 0.74 0.15 0.37 0.00 25
Nashville 436 2.06 0.23 0.00 0.00 1.61 0.23 0.46 0.00 10
New Orleans 316 5.70 0.95 0.32 0.00 3.16 0.95 1.90 0.00 10
New York City 7,528 6.27 1.87 2.67 0.94 1.47 0.50 1.85 0.35 144
Northern NJ/Newark area 1,165 3.26 1.12 1.12 0.60 0.77 0.17 1.29 0.26 26
Northern Virginia 404 6.19 1.98 2.97 0.99 2.23 0.74 0.74 0.25 21
Orange Co., CA 620 9.68 2.74 5.48 2.26 0.32 0.00 3.39 0.32 32
Orlando 250 6.80 1.20 0.00 0.00 2.00 0.40 4.40 0.80 10
Philadelphia 1,254 3.75 1.28 1.12 0.40 1.75 0.48 0.56 0.08 25
Phoenix 809 4.70 1.24 1.11 0.49 0.62 0.00 2.22 0.62 21
Pittsburgh 506 2.17 0.79 0.99 0.40 0.99 0.40 0.00 0.00 12
Portland, OR area 610 2.79 0.82 0.98 0.33 0.49 0.16 0.82 0.16 23
Raleigh/Durham 259 2.70 0.77 0.77 0.00 0.77 0.39 0.39 0.00 14
Richmond 381 2.89 1.05 0.26 0.26 2.10 0.52 0.26 0.00 8
Salt Lake City 271 1.48 0.37 0.74 0.37 0.00 0.00 0.37 0.00 10
San Diego 545 7.71 1.83 3.67 0.92 0.37 0.18 2.75 0.73 25
San Francisco 1,739 9.43 3.22 5.35 2.01 1.96 0.63 1.55 0.52 59
San Jose area 944 14.51 3.39 10.28 2.54 0.95 0.21 2.54 0.32 44
Seattle area 1,047 7.93 2.87 4.30 1.72 1.62 0.48 0.86 0.38 35
St. Louis 631 2.54 0.95 0.32 0.00 1.74 0.48 0.48 0.48 8
Tampa/St. Petersburg 487 5.54 1.23 0.21 0.00 0.62 0.21 4.52 1.03 17
Washington, D.C. 6,103 6.98 2.31 2.20 0.69 2.92 1.13 1.38 0.33 138
Wilmington 317 3.15 1.26 0.63 0.32 2.21 0.95 0.32 0.00 13

Source: The 2008-2009 NALP Directory of Legal Employers.
Some city information includes one or more offices in adjacent suburbs. Orange County includes offices Costa Mesa, Irvine, and Newport Beach. The San Jose area includes offices in Cupertino, Menlo Park, Mountain View, View, Palo Alto and E. Palo Alto, Redwood Shores/Redwood City, San Jose, and Sunnyvale. The Northern New Jersey/Newark area includes offices in Newark, Madison, Murray Hill> Roseland, West Orange, Florham Park, Hackensack, Morristown, Parsippany, Westfield, Bridgewater, and Woodbridge. Northern Virginia includes offices in Falls Church, McLean/Tysons Corner, Reston, Vienna, and Alexandria. The few Native American, Native Hawaiian and multi-racial lawyers reported are included in the overall minority. percentages but are not reported separately.


Table 2. Associate Demographics at Law Firms--2008

  Associates by Race or Ethnicity  
  All Associates Asian Black/African American Hispanic  
  Total # %
Minority
% Minority
Women
Total % %
Women
Total % %
Women
Total % %
Women
# of
Offices
Total 62,939 19.08 10.73 9.05 5.04 4.75 2.97 3.86 1.94 1,572

By Size of Firm:
50 or fewer lawyers 1,651 12.36 7.15 6.36 3.51 2.97 2.24 1.51 0.73 137
51-100 lawyers 3,688 14.59 8.35 6.62 3.74 3.47 2.28 2.49 1.30 159
101-250 lawyers 10,599 15.44 8.63 6.43 3.58 4.48 2.60 3.37 1.78 296
251-500 lawyers 11,625 16.96 9.37 6.94 3.80 5.08 3.02 3.60 1.83 348
501-700 lawyers 8,456 19.63 11.10 9.99 5.59 4.94 3.25 3.46 1.56 195
701+ lawyers 26,920 22.29 12.57 11.19 6.25 4.94 3.14 4.62 2.34 437

Offices in:
Atlanta 1,770 17.06 10.96 4.24 2.15 10.79 7.68 1.64 0.79 41
Austin 436 16.28 8.03 3.21 1.61 2.98 1.61 7.34 3.21 21
Baltimore 342 12.87 6.43 3.80 2.34 6.43 2.92 2.05 1.17 11
Birmingham 232 7.33 3.88 0.43 0.43 5.60 3.02 0.86 0.43 10
Boston area 2,336 13.74 7.62 7.71 4.15 2.83 1.71 2.35 1.37 40
Charlotte 698 10.89 6.02 1.58 0.43 6.88 4.44 1.58 0.43 24
Chicago 3,942 16.64 9.51 8.09 4.64 5.10 2.84 2.61 1.47 69
Cincinnati 293 11.26 7.17 3.75 2.05 6.48 4.10 1.02 1.02 12
Cleveland 563 7.46 4.44 2.31 0.71 3.73 2.84 1.07 0.71 14
Columbus 389 9.25 4.63 2.57 1.03 5.14 2.57 0.77 0.51 12
Dallas 1,574 15.25 7.81 4.19 2.22 4.70 2.99 4.96 2.10 38
Denver 633 12.01 5.85 3.63 2.53 2.37 1.42 4.58 1.11 32
Detroit area 517 12.77 7.16 3.09 1.35 7.54 4.84 1.35 0.58 15
Ft. Lauderdale/W. Palm Beach 133 12.78 8.27 3.76 3.01 1.50 0.75 7.52 4.51 13
Grand Rapids 167 16.17 10.78 6.59 2.99 5.39 4.79 3.59 2.99 10
Hartford 244 10.25 5.33 2.05 1.64 4.10 2.05 3.28 1.64 13
Houston 1,380 21.81 11.88 6.52 3.26 6.59 3.91 6.96 3.55 43
Indianapolis 367 13.35 8.17 3.27 1.63 7.08 4.36 1.91 1.36 9
Kansas City area 436 8.49 3.67 2.52 1.38 2.75 1.38 2.06 0.46 11
Las Vegas 235 12.34 6.38 5.96 3.83 2.13 0.85 2.98 0.43 18
Los Angeles area 3,314 29.60 16.17 17.17 9.57 3.95 2.47 6.40 2.96 92
Miami 599 37.06 19.37 1.67 1.17 6.34 4.01 27.21 12.85 22
Milwaukee 440 11.36 6.59 3.18 2.27 4.77 1.82 2.50 2.05 9
Minneapolis/St. Paul 901 11.54 6.44 5.99 3.11 2.66 1.78 1.33 0.89 25
Nashville 300 13.00 9.67 2.33 1.33 10.00 7.67 0.33 0.33 10
New Orleans 170 15.29 10.00 1.18 0.00 11.76 8.82 1.76 0.59 10
New York City 14,498 23.15 13.18 12.37 7.02 4.71 2.92 4.41 2.32 144
Northern NJ/Newark area 1,321 15.14 8.86 5.07 2.73 5.22 3.41 3.56 1.97 26
Northern Virginia 390 17.44 8.97 9.74 4.36 3.59 2.82 2.31 1.03 21
Orange Co., CA 764 21.07 10.08 13.61 6.94 0.39 0.13 4.97 2.36 32
Orlando 174 15.52 9.20 2.30 1.72 5.75 3.45 6.90 3.45 10
Philadelphia 1,461 12.59 7.53 5.00 2.53 4.86 3.22 2.05 1.23 25
Phoenix 599 15.69 7.35 4.01 2.17 2.00 0.83 6.51 2.67 21
Pittsburgh 428 8.64 6.54 2.57 1.64 3.97 2.80 1.40 1.40 12
Portland, OR area 359 12.81 8.36 6.13 4.18 2.23 1.11 1.11 0.28 23
Raleigh/Durham 175 10.29 4.57 3.43 1.14 5.14 2.86 0.57 0.00 14
Richmond 323 10.53 6.19 2.79 1.86 5.26 2.17 1.24 0.93 8
Salt Lake City 190 4.74 2.11 1.05 0.53 0.00 0.00 2.11 1.05 10
San Diego 659 20.03 11.53 10.17 5.31 2.73 2.12 4.86 2.88 25
San Francisco 2,094 28.18 16.48 18.34 10.60 3.15 2.05 4.97 2.77 59
San Jose area 1,645 35.44 17.69 28.94 14.95 2.01 0.91 3.16 1.28 44
Seattle area 678 18.88 10.77 10.18 6.78 3.24 1.47 3.24 1.18 35
St. Louis 492 12.20 7.52 3.25 2.24 6.30 4.67 1.42 0.41 8
Tampa/St. Petersburg 328 16.46 10.06 3.05 1.83 7.93 6.10 4.57 2.13 17
Washington, D.C. 6,866 20.13 11.52 8.71 4.84 6.39 4.27 3.44 1.66 138
Wilmington 353 10.20 4.53 5.38 1.98 2.55 1.42 1.42 1.13 13

Source: The 2008-2009 NALP Directory of Legal Employers.
Some city information includes one or more offices in adjacent suburbs. Orange County includes offices in Costa Mesa, Irvine, and Newport Beach. The San Jose area includes offices in Cupertino, Menlo Park, Mountain View, View, Palo Alto and E. Palo Alto, Redwood Shores/Redwood City, San Jose, and Sunnyvale. The Northern New Jersey/Newark area includes offices in Newark, Madison, Murray Hill Roseland, West Orange, Florham Park, Hackensack, Morristown, Parsippany, Westfield, Bridgewater, and Woodbridge. Northern Virginia includes offices in Falls Church, McLean/Tysons Corner, Reston, Vienna, and Alexandria. The few Native American, Native Hawaiian and multi-racial lawyers reported are included in the overall minority. percentages but are not reported separately.


Table 3. Representation of Women and Minorities Among Law Firm Partners--2008
(percent of offices in each range of representation)

  Women Minorities Minority Women
  None Up to 19% More than 19% None Up to 6% More than 6% None Up to 3% More than 3%
Total 11.7 45.5 42.8 33.9 27.8 38.2 60.3 19.6 20.1
By Size of Firm:
50 or fewer lawyers 15.3 41.6 43.1 59.1 14.6 26.3 77.4 1.5 21.2
51-100 lawyers 8.8 50.3 40.9 35.8 33.3 30.8 65.4 15.1 19.5
101-250 lawyers 13.9 46.3 39.9 30.7 42.6 26.7 58.1 30.1 11.8
251-500 lawyers 14.2 43.1 42.8 41.9 23.1 35.0 63.9 20.2 15.9
501-700 lawyers 9.7 43.1 47.2 30.8 25.6 43.6 59.5 20.0 20.5
701+ lawyers 9.2 47.4 43.5 22.7 24.5 52.6 52.2 19.0 28.8
Offices in:
Atlanta 4.9 68.3 26.8 14.6 31.7 53.7 48.8 26.8 24.4
Austin 9.5 42.9 47.6 19.0 14.3 66.7 61.9 . 38.1
Baltimore . 54.5 45.5 27.3 45.5 27.3 54.5 36.4 9.1
Birmingham . 30.0 70.0 50.0 50.0 . 70.0 30.0 .
Boston area 10.0 32.5 57.5 50.0 37.5 12.5 70.0 20.0 10.0
Charlotte 33.3 37.5 29.2 45.8 29.2 25.0 70.8 20.8 8.3
Chicago 7.2 44.9 47.8 21.7 39.1 37.7 46.4 31.9 21.7
Cincinnati 8.3 66.7 25.0 58.3 25.0 16.7 83.3 16.7 .
Cleveland 7.1 42.9 50.0 28.6 50.0 21.4 35.7 42.9 21.4
Columbus . 83.3 16.7 16.7 58.3 25.0 75.0 25.0 .
Dallas 18.4 39.5 42.1 21.1 36.8 42.1 57.9 23.7 18.4
Denver 21.9 31.3 46.9 50.0 15.6 34.4 78.1 6.3 15.6
Detroit area 6.7 26.7 66.7 13.3 60.0 26.7 33.3 53.3 13.3
Ft. Lauderdale/W. Palm Beach 23.1 30.8 46.2 53.8 . 46.2 76.9 7.7 15.4
Grand Rapids 10.0 80.0 10.0 70.0 20.0 10.0 100.0 . .
Hartford 23.1 53.8 23.1 38.5 46.2 15.4 69.2 15.4 15.4
Houston 14.0 48.8 37.2 27.9 20.9 51.2 53.5 20.9 25.6
Indianapolis 22.2 44.4 33.3 22.2 66.7 11.1 55.6 44.4 .
Kansas City area 9.1 54.5 36.4 36.4 54.5 9.1 63.6 27.3 9.1
Las Vegas 33.3 33.3 33.3 77.8 5.6 16.7 94.4 . 5.6
Los Angeles area 9.8 41.3 48.9 17.4 12.0 70.7 45.7 12.0 42.4
Miami 4.5 45.5 50.0 9.1 . 90.9 31.8 4.5 63.6
Milwaukee . 44.4 55.6 33.3 66.7 . 33.3 66.7 .
Minneapolis/St. Paul 20.0 32.0 48.0 48.0 44.0 8.0 72.0 24.0 4.0
Nashville . 60.0 40.0 40.0 60.0 . 90.0 10.0 .
New Orleans 10.0 10.0 80.0 30.0 40.0 30.0 70.0 20.0 10.0
New York City 6.9 65.3 27.8 22.2 29.9 47.9 50.0 28.5 21.5
Nothern NJ/Newark area 11.5 61.5 26.9 34.6 53.8 11.5 61.5 26.9 11.5
Northern Virginia 19.0 38.1 42.9 28.6 28.6 42.9 66.7 . 33.3
Orange Co., CA 21.9 53.1 25.0 34.4 12.5 53.1 68.8 6.3 25.0
Orlando 20.0 60.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 30.0 70.0 10.0 20.0
Philadelphia 4.0 36.0 60.0 40.0 44.0 16.0 56.0 40.0 4.0
Phoenix 4.8 47.6 47.6 42.9 28.6 28.6 66.7 28.6 4.8
Pittsburgh . 41.7 58.3 41.7 50.0 8.3 66.7 25.0 8.3
Portland, OR area 34.8 17.4 47.8 56.5 26.1 17.4 78.3 17.4 4.3
Raleigh/Durham 21.4 42.9 35.7 50.0 28.6 21.4 85.7 . 14.3
Richmond 12.5 75.0 12.5 62.5 37.5 . 75.0 25.0 .
Salt Lake City 20.0 80.0 . 70.0 20.0 10.0 90.0 10.0 .
San Diego 24.0 28.0 48.0 28.0 24.0 48.0 68.0 8.0 24.0
San Francisco 5.1 33.9 61.0 25.4 16.9 57.6 49.2 13.6 37.3
San Jose area 11.4 47.7 40.9 20.5 2.3 77.3 54.5 4.5 40.9
Seattle area 20.0 25.7 54.3 37.1 11.4 51.4 62.9 11.4 25.7
St. Louis . 50.0 50.0 25.0 75.0 . 50.0 50.0 .
Tampa/St. Petersburg 17.6 47.1 35.3 35.3 35.3 29.4 70.6 23.5 5.9
Washington, D.C. 8.0 38.4 53.6 20.3 26.1 53.6 44.9 28.3 26.8
Wilmington 15.4 46.2 38.5 61.5 23.1 15.4 76.9 15.4 7.7
 
        States:
Other areas in California 15.0 35.0 50.0 50.0 5.0 45.0 80.0 . 20.0
Other areas in Connecticut 28.6 28.6 42.9 71.4 28.6 . 92.9 7.1 .
Kentucky 14.3 28.6 57.1 42.9 57.1 . 57.1 28.6 14.3
Mississippi 27.3 63.6 9.1 54.5 18.2 27.3 63.6 18.2 18.2
Other areas in New Jersey . 44.4 55.6 55.6 22.2 22.2 77.8 . 22.2
Other areas in New York State . 62.5 37.5 50.0 25.0 25.0 87.5 6.3 6.3
Other areas in Ohio 11.1 77.8 11.1 66.7 33.3 . 77.8 22.2 .
Other areas in Pennsylvania 7.7 46.2 46.2 61.5 30.8 7.7 84.6 . 15.4
Other areas in Texas 7.7 61.5 30.8 46.2 7.7 46.2 76.9 7.7 15.4


Table 4. Representation of Women and Minorities Among Law Firm Associates--2008
(percent of offices in each range of representation)

  Women Minorities Minority Women
  Less than 40% 40 - 49.9% 50% or more None Up to 19% More than 19% None Up to 9% More than 9%
 
 
Total 31.1 29.5 39.3 16.7 43.4 39.9 25.4 27.5 47.1
 
        By Size of Firm:
50 or fewer lawyers 45.3 18.2 36.5 43.8 31.4 24.8 55.5 10.2 34.3
51-100 lawyers 39.0 20.1 40.9 17.0 56.0 27.0 24.5 39.0 36.5
101-250 lawyers 30.0 32.4 37.5 17.1 52.9 30.0 27.0 36.9 36.2
251-500 lawyers 28.4 27.9 43.7 22.0 41.1 37.0 31.4 27.0 41.6
501-700 lawyers 31.3 30.8 37.9 13.3 43.6 43.1 22.6 23.6 53.8
701+ lawyers 26.6 35.3 38.1 5.3 37.8 56.9 11.9 24.5 63.5
 
        Offices in:
Atlanta 24.4 26.8 48.8 9.8 56.1 34.1 17.1 24.4 58.5
Austin 38.1 28.6 33.3 . 57.1 42.9 23.8 28.6 47.6
Baltimore 36.4 27.3 36.4 18.2 54.5 27.3 36.4 36.4 27.3
Birmingham 60.0 30.0 10.0 30.0 50.0 20.0 40.0 50.0 10.0
Boston area 27.5 32.5 40.0 10.0 67.5 22.5 15.0 47.5 37.5
Charlotte 37.5 37.5 25.0 25.0 70.8 4.2 37.5 41.7 20.8
Chicago 24.6 42.0 33.3 5.8 60.9 33.3 15.9 42.0 42.0
Cincinnati 50.0 16.7 33.3 16.7 66.7 16.7 33.3 41.7 25.0
Cleveland 14.3 42.9 42.9 21.4 78.6 . 42.9 50.0 7.1
Columbus 25.0 41.7 33.3 8.3 83.3 8.3 33.3 50.0 16.7
Dallas 51.4 29.7 18.9 8.1 59.5 32.4 10.8 48.6 40.5
Denver 38.7 6.5 54.8 22.6 64.5 12.9 45.2 35.5 19.4
Detroit area 26.7 33.3 40.0 20.0 60.0 20.0 20.0 60.0 20.0
Ft. Lauderdale/W. Palm Beach 30.8 15.4 53.8 30.8 46.2 23.1 46.2 15.4 38.5
Grand Rapids 40.0 40.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 30.0 40.0 10.0 50.0
Hartford 46.2 30.8 23.1 30.8 61.5 7.7 46.2 30.8 23.1
Houston 34.9 32.6 32.6 16.3 27.9 55.8 20.9 20.9 58.1
Indianapolis 25.0 62.5 12.5 12.5 62.5 25.0 25.0 37.5 37.5
Kansas City area 45.5 36.4 18.2 9.1 81.8 9.1 45.5 45.5 9.1
Las Vegas 66.7 11.1 22.2 27.8 44.4 27.8 44.4 22.2 33.3
Los Angeles area 22.0 31.9 46.2 4.4 12.1 83.5 7.7 8.8 83.5
Miami 22.7 27.3 50.0 4.5 4.5 90.9 9.1 4.5 86.4
Milwaukee 11.1 55.6 33.3 11.1 77.8 11.1 11.1 66.7 22.2
Minneapolis/St. Paul 36.0 20.0 44.0 24.0 52.0 24.0 36.0 36.0 28.0
Nashville 30.0 40.0 30.0 30.0 60.0 10.0 40.0 20.0 40.0
New Orleans 20.0 30.0 50.0 10.0 60.0 30.0 20.0 20.0 60.0
New York City 21.5 39.6 38.9 6.3 31.9 61.8 9.0 18.1 72.9
Nothern NJ/Newark area 19.2 46.2 34.6 11.5 57.7 30.8 15.4 38.5 46.2
Northern Virginia 50.0 10.0 40.0 15.0 40.0 45.0 20.0 40.0 40.0
Orange Co., CA 50.0 28.1 21.9 12.5 31.3 56.3 21.9 18.8 59.4
Orlando 30.0 50.0 20.0 20.0 60.0 20.0 30.0 20.0 50.0
Philadelphia 29.2 33.3 37.5 20.8 70.8 8.3 20.8 50.0 29.2
Phoenix 57.1 19.0 23.8 14.3 47.6 38.1 38.1 28.6 33.3
Pittsburgh 16.7 41.7 41.7 33.3 66.7 . 33.3 33.3 33.3
Portland, OR area 34.8 21.7 43.5 43.5 21.7 34.8 47.8 13.0 39.1
Raleigh/Durham 50.0 7.1 42.9 35.7 42.9 21.4 50.0 35.7 14.3
Richmond . 42.9 57.1 14.3 85.7 . 28.6 42.9 28.6
Salt Lake City 90.0 . 10.0 60.0 40.0 . 70.0 30.0 .
San Diego 44.0 24.0 32.0 16.0 36.0 48.0 32.0 24.0 44.0
San Francisco 13.6 27.1 59.3 3.4 16.9 79.7 8.5 11.9 79.7
San Jose area 31.8 29.5 38.6 . 4.5 95.5 4.5 9.1 86.4
Seattle area 17.1 22.9 60.0 14.3 40.0 45.7 20.0 28.6 51.4
St. Louis 12.5 62.5 25.0 12.5 75.0 12.5 12.5 75.0 12.5
Tampa/St. Petersburg 25.0 37.5 37.5 6.3 62.5 31.3 31.3 12.5 56.3
Washington, D.C. 27.0 32.8 40.1 10.2 35.8 54.0 12.4 24.8 62.8
Wilmington 30.8 53.8 15.4 30.8 53.8 15.4 38.5 38.5 23.1
 
        States:
Other areas in California 50.0 10.0 40.0 35.0 25.0 40.0 55.0 5.0 40.0
Other areas in Connecticut 14.3 14.3 71.4 28.6 50.0 21.4 42.9 14.3 42.9
Kentucky 42.9 14.3 42.9 14.3 85.7 . 14.3 85.7 .
Mississippi 63.6 18.2 18.2 63.6 27.3 9.1 72.7 18.2 9.1
Other areas in New Jersey 22.2 11.1 66.7 33.3 44.4 22.2 33.3 33.3 33.3
Other areas in New York State 43.8 25.0 31.3 18.8 75.0 6.3 31.3 56.3 12.5
Other areas in Ohio 33.3 44.4 22.2 33.3 55.6 11.1 44.4 22.2 33.3
Other areas in Pennsylvania 46.2 23.1 30.8 46.2 53.8 . 61.5 30.8 7.7
Other areas in Texas 38.5 7.7 53.8 30.8 23.1 46.2 46.2 23.1 30.8
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