A Closer Look at NALP Findings on Women and Minorities in Law Firms by Race and Ethnicity

NALP Bulletin, January 2011

In a November 4, 2010 press release, NALP reported that the representation of women and minority lawyers among law firm associates declined between 2009 and 2010, likely a casualty of massive lawyer layoffs during the 2008-2009 recession. As NALP Executive Director James Leipold noted in that release, the actual drop in the representation of women and minorities was quite small and occurred only among associates, not partners, but the decrease is still of significance because it represents the reversal of what had been, up until 2010, a constant upward trend.

Aggregate statistics about the representation of women and minority lawyers at law firms do not tell the whole story, however. For instance, among all employers listed in the 2010-2011 NALP Directory of Legal Employers, just over 6% of partners were minorities and 1.95% of partners were minority women, and yet many offices reported no minority partners at all. In addition, the representation of minorities by specific race and ethnicity varies considerably by size of law firm and geography. Moreover, the drop in minority representation among associates was not uniform across specific racial/ethnic groups. This article takes a closer look at the representation of specific minority groups at the partnership and associate levels.

Overall, minority groups are relatively equally represented at the partner level (Table 1). (The term minorities as used here includes lawyers identified as Black, Hispanic, Native American, Asian, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, and multi-racial. The very few Native American, Native Hawaiian, and multi-racial lawyers are not reported out separately.) Differences are evident, however, depending on the size of the firm. For example, the presence of Black and Hispanic partners increases with firm size, whereas Asian partners are most prevalent at the smaller and largest firms. Percentages of female minority partners are generally highest in the largest firms, although for Asian women percentages at the smallest and largest firms are nearly identical.

At the city level, the presence of Black partners is highest in Atlanta, followed by Washington, DC, Baltimore, and New Orleans. The presence of Black female partners exceeds 1% in just four cities: Atlanta, Ft. Lauderdale/West Palm Beach, Miami, and Washington, DC. Black partners account for less than 0.5% of partners in Grand Rapids, Minneapolis, Orange County, CA, and San Diego.

Over half of minority partners in Austin, Miami, Ft. Lauderdale/West Palm Beach, Phoenix, and Tampa/St. Petersburg are Hispanic. In each of these cities, the presence of female Hispanic partners is also above average. Conversely, in nine of the 43 cities listed, fewer than 0.5% of partners are Hispanic. Asian partners are most common in the Los Angeles and Orange County, CA areas, and in the San Francisco and San Jose areas. Asian women are most frequent in these same cities, as well as in Sacramento.

Among associates, Asians account for almost half of all minority associates at the national level, and in the smallest and largest firms. Comparing these 2010 figures with those from 2009 shows that the overall decline in minority representation from 19.67% in 2009 to 19.53% in 2010 (as reported in the November 4, 2010 press release cited above) occurred primarily among Blacks, and to a lesser extent, Hispanics. Thus, the percentage of Black associates declined from 4.66% in 2009 to 4.36% in 2010; for Hispanic associates, the percentages declined from 3.89% to 3.81%. Representation of Asians among associates, in contrast, increased a bit, from 9.28% to 9.39%.

As is the case with partners, cities vary a great deal on these measures (Table 2). For example, Black associates are most common by far in Atlanta, followed by Charlotte, Ft. Lauderdale/West Palm Beach, and Nashville. In each of these cities, except Ft. Lauderdale/West Palm Beach, Blacks account for over half of minority associates. The percentage of Black female associates was also highest in these cities, along with New Orleans and Washington, DC. Every city reported at least some Black associates and Black female associates. The pattern for Hispanic associates is similar to that at the partner level, with representation highest by far in Miami, followed by Ft. Lauderdale/West Palm Beach, and Austin. Percentage representation was less than 1% in several cities. The leading cities for Asian associates — both overall and for women specifically — are San Francisco, followed by the San Jose area, the Los Angeles and Orange County areas, New York City, and Seattle. Every city reported at least some Asian associates.

Additional insight on women and minorities at law firms comes from looking at the extent to which women and minorities are represented at each office, rather than for a city or for the nation as a whole. Thus, the fact that just over 6% of partners as a whole are minorities does not mean that minorities make up 6% of partners at each of the 1,400 offices and firms represented in the 2010 Directory. In fact, as Table 3 shows, about 30% of the offices/firms reported no minority partners, and 57% reported no minority women partners. Both of these figures are better at the largest firms, and most offices — 90% — report at least one woman partner, but less than half — about 46% — have more than the average 19% of women partners.

Likewise, almost 16% of offices/firms have no minority associates, and 42% exceed the average figures of about 19%. (See Table 4.) About 25% of offices reported no minority women associates. In each case, small firms are most likely to have no minority associates and the largest firms least likely to have no minority associates. However, firms of 501-700 lawyers are most similar to the smallest firms on these measures. About one-third of offices reported that more than half of associates were women.

Table 1. Partner Demographics at Law Firms — 2010

  ALL PARTNERS PARTNERS BY RACE OR ETHNICITY # of Offices
Asian Black/African American Hispanic
Total # % Minority % Minority Women Total % % Women Total % % Women Total % % Women
Total 58,753 6.16 1.95 2.30 0.81 1.70 0.56 1.70 0.44 1,400
By Size of Firm:
100 or fewer lawyers 6,781 5.91 2.14 2.77 1.06 1.05 0.38 1.24 0.43 246
101-250 lawyers 14,224 4.20 1.22 1.36 0.46 1.36 0.40 1.06 0.24 221
251-500 lawyers 12,625 6.04 2.01 1.91 0.74 1.89 0.68 1.78 0.50 309
501-700 lawyers 6,284 6.46 1.85 2.29 0.81 1.91 0.56 1.78 0.33 179
701+ lawyers 18,839 7.72 2.44 3.11 1.04 2.00 0.67 2.28 0.61 445
Offices in:
Atlanta 1,502 6.72 2.20 1.66 0.60 3.86 1.26 0.87 0.33 34
Austin 397 8.31 2.77 1.26 0.50 2.02 0.76 4.53 1.51 18
Baltimore 622 3.70 0.80 0.64 0.32 2.41 0.16 0.32 0.32 12
Birmingham 291 2.41 1.37 0.69 0.69 1.72 0.69 0.00 0.00 5
Boston area 1,828 3.23 1.20 1.53 0.93 0.82 0.11 0.71 0.11 36
Charlotte 512 4.49 1.17 1.17 0.20 1.56 0.78 1.37 0.20 17
Chicago 4,036 5.97 1.96 2.50 0.89 2.01 0.74 1.21 0.25 64
Cincinnati 619 3.07 0.97 0.48 0.16 1.45 0.32 0.81 0.48 12
Cleveland 680 3.24 1.18 1.18 0.44 1.76 0.74 0.15 0.00 13
Columbus 570 3.68 0.18 0.88 0.00 1.93 0.18 0.18 0.00 13
Dallas 1,342 6.04 1.34 1.56 0.30 1.19 0.37 2.53 0.52 34
Denver 580 5.69 1.90 1.72 0.69 1.21 0.34 1.72 0.34 25
Detroit area 882 4.08 1.13 0.79 0.11 2.72 0.91 0.45 0.00 14
Ft. Lauderdale/W. Palm Beach 197 5.58 3.05 0.00 0.00 2.03 2.03 3.55 1.02 11
Grand Rapids 453 1.77 0.22 0.22 0.00 0.44 0.00 0.88 0.22 10
Houston 1,096 7.57 2.01 1.46 0.36 2.28 0.73 3.19 0.64 37
Indianapolis 755 3.31 1.32 0.53 0.40 1.59 0.40 0.93 0.40 12
Kansas City area 770 2.21 0.52 0.26 0.26 0.91 0.13 0.78 0.13 11
Las Vegas 200 7.50 3.00 2.50 1.50 0.50 0.50 3.00 0.50 13
Los Angeles area 2,314 12.06 3.72 5.92 1.86 2.03 0.56 3.28 1.08 81
Miami 653 24.04 6.74 0.15 0.00 2.45 1.23 20.52 5.05 20
Milwaukee 730 3.15 1.10 0.55 0.27 0.55 0.00 1.23 0.55 9
Minneapolis 1,342 2.38 0.67 1.12 0.45 0.45 0.07 0.22 0.00 23
Nashville 275 2.91 0.36 0.36 0.00 1.82 0.36 0.73 0.00 7
New Orleans 252 4.76 0.79 0.00 0.00 2.78 0.79 1.98 0.00 7
New York City 7,150 6.29 2.11 2.90 1.12 1.33 0.43 1.87 0.43 129
Northern NJ/Newark area 1,169 3.93 1.20 0.94 0.43 1.37 0.43 1.37 0.34 22
Northern Virginia 302 7.28 1.66 3.64 0.99 1.99 0.33 1.32 0.33 15
Orange Co., CA 560 10.36 2.86 6.25 1.96 0.36 0.00 3.39 0.71 29
Philadelphia 1,082 3.97 1.39 1.29 0.37 1.94 0.83 0.28 0.09 17
Phoenix 779 5.65 1.80 1.16 0.39 0.51 0.00 2.95 1.03 20
Pittsburgh 531 1.51 0.38 0.94 0.38 0.38 0.00 0.19 0.00 10
Portland, OR area 579 3.28 1.55 1.55 0.69 0.52 0.35 1.21 0.52 20
Raleigh/Durham 369 2.44 0.81 0.54 0.00 1.08 0.54 0.54 0.00 17
Sacramento 165 8.48 4.24 4.85 3.64 1.82 0.00 1.21 0.61 10
San Diego 375 8.53 1.60 4.27 0.80 0.00 0.00 2.93 0.53 20
San Francisco 1,568 10.97 3.76 6.31 2.42 1.91 0.45 1.91 0.70 54
San Jose area 904 15.15 4.20 11.39 3.43 0.88 0.11 2.21 0.22 47
Seattle area 1,041 8.36 2.98 4.23 1.63 1.83 0.58 0.77 0.29 33
St. Louis 820 3.66 1.10 0.61 0.12 2.07 0.61 0.61 0.37 9
Tampa/St. Petersburg 405 8.40 2.72 0.49 0.25 1.48 0.99 6.17 1.48 12
Washington, DC 5,755 6.99 2.45 2.52 0.85 2.80 1.11 1.22 0.33 124
Wilmington 326 3.37 1.23 0.92 0.31 2.15 0.92 0.31 0.00 13

Source: The 2010-2011 NALP Directory of Legal Employers. Some city information includes one or more offices in adjacent suburbs. Orange County includes offices in Costa Mesa, Irvine, and Newport Beach. The San Jose area includes offices in Cupertino, Menlo Park, Mountain View, Palo Alto and E. Palo Alto, Redwood Shores/Redwood City, San Jose, and Sunnyvale. The Northern New Jersey/Newark area includes offices in Newark, Short Hills, Roseland, West Orange, Florham Park, Hackensack, Morristown, Parsippany, Westfield, Bridgewater, and Woodbridge. Northern Virginia includes offices in Falls Church, McLean/Tysons Corner, Reston, Vienna, and Alexandria. The few Native American, Native Hawaiian, and multi-racial lawyers reported are included in the overall minority percentages but are not reported separately. For multi-office firms that reported only firmwide figures, the information was attributed to the reporting city if at least 60% of the firms lawyers are in that city.

 

Table 2. Associate Demographics at Law Firms — 2010

  ALL ASSOCIATES ASSOCIATES BY RACE OR ETHNICITY # of Offices
Asian Black/African American Hispanic
Total # % Minority % Minority Women Total % % Women Total % % Women Total % % Women
Total 56,249 19.53 10.90 9.39 5.15 4.36 2.75 3.81 1.94 1,400
By Size of Firm:
100 or fewer lawyers 4,160 15.00 8.70 7.28 4.30 2.84 1.97 2.64 1.25 246
101-250 lawyers 9,147 15.01 8.16 6.53 3.56 4.08 2.22 3.03 1.62 221
251-500 lawyers 10,612 17.72 9.54 7.43 3.84 4.68 2.86 3.66 1.80 309
501-700 lawyers 6,299 19.26 10.78 9.65 5.62 3.95 2.59 3.54 1.56 179
701+ lawyers 26,031 22.65 12.80 11.47 6.26 4.66 3.06 4.40 2.31 445
Offices in:
Atlanta 1,319 16.68 11.37 5.16 2.96 9.55 7.20 1.06 0.61 34
Austin 330 16.97 6.67 3.33 1.21 2.73 1.21 8.48 3.94 18
Baltimore 308 12.01 6.17 3.25 1.95 5.19 3.25 2.60 0.97 12
Birmingham 147 7.48 5.44 1.36 1.36 4.08 3.40 0.68 0.00 5
Boston area 2,019 14.91 8.57 8.22 4.85 2.58 1.39 2.72 1.54 36
Charlotte 433 11.09 6.47 1.62 0.46 7.16 5.31 1.62 0.23 17
Chicago 3,331 17.26 9.82 8.32 4.68 4.56 2.67 2.97 1.62 64
Cincinnati 378 8.73 5.56 3.44 2.38 4.23 2.38 0.79 0.53 12
Cleveland 498 6.83 3.82 1.61 0.80 3.21 2.01 1.41 0.60 13
Columbus 347 12.10 6.92 3.46 2.02 6.34 3.17 1.44 1.15 13
Dallas 1,415 16.68 8.13 5.09 2.12 4.59 2.83 4.73 2.12 34
Denver 464 12.72 6.03 2.80 1.51 2.80 1.72 4.96 1.08 25
Detroit area 431 10.90 7.19 2.32 1.39 6.26 3.94 1.16 0.70 14
Ft. Lauderdale/W. Palm Beach 130 20.77 15.38 3.85 3.08 7.69 4.62 9.23 7.69 11
Grand Rapids 150 11.33 7.33 4.67 2.67 4.00 2.00 2.67 2.67 10
Houston 1,158 20.47 10.62 6.30 3.45 5.44 3.54 6.82 2.94 37
Indianapolis 355 12.39 5.92 1.69 0.85 7.04 3.38 2.54 0.85 12
Kansas City area 449 12.47 6.68 2.45 1.34 5.35 3.12 1.78 0.67 11
Las Vegas 192 13.02 7.29 6.25 4.17 1.56 1.04 3.13 1.04 13
Los Angeles area 2,747 28.65 16.05 17.11 9.90 2.84 1.97 5.90 2.66 81
Miami 448 37.95 20.09 2.90 1.79 6.47 3.35 26.56 14.06 20
Milwaukee 418 11.72 6.46 2.63 1.91 4.31 1.44 3.83 2.15 9
Minneapolis 850 13.41 7.29 6.24 3.41 3.18 1.88 1.88 0.94 23
Nashville 225 12.89 8.00 2.67 1.33 8.00 5.33 0.89 0.89 7
New Orleans 165 10.30 6.67 0.61 0.00 6.67 4.85 3.03 1.82 7
New York City 13,445 23.25 12.96 12.64 6.80 4.46 2.89 3.99 2.10 129
Northern NJ/Newark area 1,100 12.73 7.18 4.18 2.18 3.82 2.09 3.45 2.18 22
Northern Virginia 287 17.77 7.67 11.85 3.83 1.74 1.05 2.44 1.39 15
Orange Co., CA 677 25.26 10.78 16.54 7.53 0.74 0.44 5.61 2.22 29
Philadelphia 1,046 13.29 7.46 6.31 2.96 3.54 2.29 2.68 1.63 17
Phoenix 511 14.87 8.02 3.33 2.15 1.76 1.17 6.26 2.94 20
Pittsburgh 399 10.53 7.77 3.76 2.01 3.76 2.76 2.01 2.01 10
Portland, OR area 320 13.75 9.06 5.31 4.06 1.88 1.25 2.19 0.94 20
Raleigh/Durham 245 8.16 4.49 4.08 2.45 2.45 1.63 0.82 0.00 17
Sacramento 191 13.61 10.47 6.28 5.76 1.57 1.05 2.62 0.52 10
San Diego 480 19.38 8.54 9.38 4.58 1.46 1.46 5.00 1.67 20
San Francisco 1,801 27.87 16.38 18.55 10.94 2.44 1.67 4.33 2.39 54
San Jose area 1,429 36.81 17.70 28.27 14.00 1.61 0.84 3.71 1.40 47
Seattle area 640 21.56 11.41 12.50 6.88 2.66 1.09 3.75 1.88 33
St. Louis 512 11.52 5.27 2.73 1.56 5.86 2.54 1.56 0.78 9
Tampa/St. Petersburg 249 14.46 9.24 2.81 2.01 4.02 2.41 6.83 4.42 12
Washington, DC 6,287 20.76 11.96 9.24 5.06 5.95 3.93 3.61 1.94 124
Wilmington 384 9.90 5.47 3.13 1.56 3.91 2.34 1.56 1.30 13

Source: The 2010-2011 NALP Directory of Legal Employers. Some city information includes one or more offices in adjacent suburbs. Orange County includes offices in Costa Mesa, Irvine, and Newport Beach. The San Jose area includes offices in Cupertino, Menlo Park, Mountain View, Palo Alto and E. Palo Alto, Redwood Shores/Redwood City, San Jose, and Sunnyvale. The Northern New Jersey/Newark area includes offices in Newark, Short Hills, Roseland, West Orange, Florham Park, Hackensack, Morristown, Parsippany, Westfield, Bridgewater, and Woodbridge. Northern Virginia includes offices in Falls Church, McLean/Tysons Corner, Reston, Vienna, and Alexandria. The few Native American, Native Hawaiian and multi-racial lawyers reported are included in the overall minority percentages but are not reported separately. For multi-office firms that reported only firmwide figures, the information was attributed to the reporting city if at least 60% of the firms lawyers are in that city.

 

Table 3. Representation of Women and Minorities Among Law Firm Partners — 2010
(percent of offices in each range of representation)

  WOMEN MINORITIES MINORITY WOMEN
None Up to 19% More than 19% None Up to 6% More than 6% None Up to 2% More than 2%
Total 9.6 43.8 46.5 29.8 29.1 41.1 57.1 11.7 31.2
By Size of Firm:
100 or fewer lawyers 8.1 42.3 49.6 40.2 29.3 30.5 65.4 2.4 32.1
101-250 lawyers 6.3 48.4 45.2 21.7 54.8 23.5 54.8 25.3 19.9
251-500 lawyers 11.3 41.4 47.2 33.0 24.3 42.7 56.6 12.6 30.7
501-700 lawyers 14.0 39.3 46.6 38.8 19.7 41.6 62.4 10.1 27.5
701+ lawyers 9.2 45.8 44.9 22.2 23.4 54.4 51.9 9.9 38.2
Offices in:
Atlanta 8.8 58.8 32.4 14.7 23.5 61.8 50.0 8.8 41.2
Austin 16.7 27.8 55.6 16.7 16.7 66.7 61.1 0.0 38.9
Baltimore 8.3 50.0 41.7 41.7 50.0 8.3 66.7 16.7 16.7
Birmingham 0.0 20.0 80.0 40.0 60.0 0.0 60.0 0.0 40.0
Boston area 8.3 38.9 52.8 44.4 33.3 22.2 63.9 13.9 22.2
Charlotte 23.5 64.7 11.8 47.1 29.4 23.5 70.6 17.6 11.8
Chicago 7.8 42.2 50.0 14.1 48.4 37.5 45.3 21.9 32.8
Cincinnati 8.3 33.3 58.3 50.0 41.7 8.3 75.0 8.3 16.7
Cleveland 7.7 30.8 61.5 30.8 61.5 7.7 46.2 38.5 15.4
Columbus 7.7 76.9 15.4 30.8 53.8 15.4 92.3 7.7 0.0
Dallas 11.8 61.8 26.5 17.6 38.2 44.1 58.8 20.6 20.6
Denver 8.0 32.0 60.0 52.0 8.0 40.0 72.0 8.0 20.0
Detroit area 7.1 35.7 57.1 14.3 50.0 35.7 42.9 28.6 28.6
Ft. Lauderdale/W. Palm Beach 18.2 36.4 45.5 45.5 18.2 36.4 54.5 0.0 45.5
Grand Rapids 10.0 70.0 20.0 50.0 40.0 10.0 90.0 10.0 0.0
Houston 10.8 37.8 51.4 29.7 18.9 51.4 56.8 10.8 32.4
Indianapolis 8.3 41.7 50.0 25.0 66.7 8.3 50.0 25.0 25.0
Kansas City area 0.0 45.5 54.5 36.4 54.5 9.1 63.6 27.3 9.1
Las Vegas 7.7 30.8 61.5 38.5 15.4 46.2 61.5 0.0 38.5
Los Angeles area 8.6 46.9 44.4 13.6 8.6 77.8 45.7 4.9 49.4
Miami 5.0 45.0 50.0 5.0 5.0 90.0 35.0 0.0 65.0
Milwaukee 0.0 55.6 44.4 33.3 55.6 11.1 44.4 44.4 11.1
Minneapolis 4.3 34.8 60.9 43.5 47.8 8.7 73.9 17.4 8.7
Nashville 14.3 57.1 28.6 42.9 57.1 0.0 85.7 0.0 14.3
New Orleans 14.3 14.3 71.4 42.9 28.6 28.6 71.4 14.3 14.3
New York City 5.4 64.3 30.2 17.8 37.2 45.0 43.4 14.7 41.9
Nothern NJ/Newark area 4.5 54.5 40.9 31.8 54.5 13.6 59.1 27.3 13.6
Northern Virginia 6.7 66.7 26.7 40.0 33.3 26.7 80.0 0.0 20.0
Orange Co., CA 27.6 44.8 27.6 24.1 10.3 65.5 65.5 0.0 34.5
Philadelphia 0.0 41.2 58.8 23.5 52.9 23.5 52.9 35.3 11.8
Phoenix 5.0 40.0 55.0 30.0 35.0 35.0 60.0 10.0 30.0
Pittsburgh 0.0 30.0 70.0 50.0 50.0 0.0 80.0 20.0 0.0
Portland, OR area 20.0 30.0 50.0 60.0 20.0 20.0 65.0 10.0 25.0
Raleigh/Durham 11.8 35.3 52.9 58.8 35.3 5.9 82.4 5.9 11.8
Sacramento 30.0 20.0 50.0 40.0 10.0 50.0 80.0 0.0 20.0
San Diego 20.0 35.0 45.0 35.0 15.0 50.0 75.0 5.0 20.0
San Francisco 5.6 18.5 75.9 18.5 9.3 72.2 35.2 3.7 61.1
San Jose area 14.9 38.3 46.8 12.8 0.0 87.2 44.7 2.1 53.2
Seattle area 9.1 30.3 60.6 21.2 18.2 60.6 57.6 3.0 39.4
St. Louis 0.0 44.4 55.6 11.1 88.9 0.0 44.4 55.6 0.0
Tampa/St. Petersburg 8.3 50.0 41.7 16.7 25.0 58.3 41.7 8.3 50.0
Washington, DC 7.3 41.1 51.6 18.5 29.0 52.4 42.7 9.7 47.6
Wilmington 23.1 53.8 23.1 53.8 30.8 15.4 76.9 7.7 15.4

 

Table 4. Representation of Women and Minorities Among Law Firm Associates — 2010
(percent of offices in each range of representation)

  WOMEN MINORITIES MINORITY WOMEN
Less than 45% 45-50% More than 50% None Up to 19% More than 19% None Up to 11% More than 11%
Total 49.0 18.7 32.3 15.6 42.7 41.7 24.9 35.2 40.0
By Size of Firm:
100 or fewer lawyers 54.7 16.0 29.2 28.0 42.4 29.6 38.3 29.6 32.1
101-250 lawyers 48.4 18.6 33.0 12.2 59.3 28.5 21.7 51.6 26.7
251-500 lawyers 47.7 18.6 33.7 17.6 43.5 38.9 27.8 35.3 36.9
501-700 lawyers 48.3 18.2 33.5 22.2 34.7 43.2 33.5 29.5 36.9
701+ lawyers 47.4 20.4 32.1 6.5 37.3 56.2 13.7 32.1 54.2
Offices in:
Atlanta 47.1 17.6 35.3 2.9 64.7 32.4 17.6 32.4 50.0
Austin 55.6 5.6 38.9 5.6 44.4 50.0 16.7 50.0 33.3
Baltimore 50.0 16.7 33.3 41.7 41.7 16.7 41.7 41.7 16.7
Birmingham 60.0 20.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 0.0 40.0 40.0 20.0
Boston area 38.9 25.0 36.1 8.3 58.3 33.3 25.0 47.2 27.8
Charlotte 76.5 11.8 11.8 5.9 70.6 23.5 29.4 41.2 29.4
Chicago 51.6 18.8 29.7 9.4 50.0 40.6 20.3 40.6 39.1
Cincinnati 50.0 8.3 41.7 33.3 66.7 0.0 33.3 58.3 8.3
Cleveland 46.2 7.7 46.2 30.8 61.5 7.7 46.2 53.8 0.0
Columbus 38.5 30.8 30.8 15.4 76.9 7.7 23.1 53.8 23.1
Dallas 73.5 11.8 14.7 5.9 64.7 29.4 14.7 52.9 32.4
Denver 48.0 12.0 40.0 24.0 64.0 12.0 44.0 40.0 16.0
Detroit area 50.0 28.6 21.4 14.3 64.3 21.4 35.7 42.9 21.4
Ft. Lauderdale/W. Palm Beach 45.5 18.2 36.4 0.0 36.4 63.6 18.2 9.1 72.7
Grand Rapids 70.0 30.0 0.0 40.0 40.0 20.0 40.0 40.0 20.0
Houston 59.5 16.2 24.3 10.8 45.9 43.2 21.6 37.8 40.5
Indianapolis 45.5 36.4 18.2 18.2 63.6 18.2 27.3 45.5 27.3
Kansas City area 60.0 10.0 30.0 10.0 60.0 30.0 30.0 40.0 30.0
Las Vegas 69.2 7.7 23.1 38.5 30.8 30.8 53.8 23.1 23.1
Los Angeles area 39.5 14.8 45.7 4.9 22.2 72.8 9.9 18.5 71.6
Miami 55.0 25.0 20.0 0.0 5.0 95.0 0.0 5.0 95.0
Milwaukee 55.6 22.2 22.2 22.2 66.7 11.1 33.3 55.6 11.1
Minneapolis 39.1 13.0 47.8 13.0 69.6 17.4 21.7 52.2 26.1
Nashville 57.1 42.9 0.0 42.9 57.1 0.0 42.9 42.9 14.3
New Orleans 28.6 14.3 57.1 28.6 42.9 28.6 42.9 14.3 42.9
New York City 45.7 25.6 28.7 3.1 34.1 62.8 6.2 37.2 56.6
Nothern NJ/Newark area 63.6 13.6 22.7 4.5 86.4 9.1 9.1 72.7 18.2
Northern Virginia 60.0 13.3 26.7 0.0 46.7 53.3 13.3 46.7 40.0
Orange Co., CA 65.5 13.8 20.7 10.3 13.8 75.9 17.2 34.5 48.3
Philadelphia 58.8 17.6 23.5 17.6 70.6 11.8 17.6 64.7 17.6
Phoenix 65.0 15.0 20.0 15.0 60.0 25.0 35.0 40.0 25.0
Pittsburgh 40.0 20.0 40.0 20.0 80.0 0.0 30.0 50.0 20.0
Portland, OR area 35.0 15.0 50.0 35.0 40.0 25.0 45.0 15.0 40.0
Raleigh/Durham 64.7 11.8 23.5 23.5 64.7 11.8 47.1 41.2 11.8
Sacramento 50.0 0.0 50.0 30.0 40.0 30.0 40.0 10.0 50.0
San Diego 70.0 5.0 25.0 15.0 20.0 65.0 25.0 55.0 20.0
San Francisco 18.5 24.1 57.4 5.6 24.1 70.4 11.1 16.7 72.2
San Jose area 53.2 17.0 29.8 4.3 10.6 85.1 10.6 10.6 78.7
Seattle area 33.3 24.2 42.4 12.1 24.2 63.6 36.4 18.2 45.5
St. Louis 66.7 11.1 22.2 11.1 88.9 0.0 22.2 77.8 0.0
Tampa/St. Petersburg 41.7 16.7 41.7 25.0 50.0 25.0 41.7 25.0 33.3
Washington, DC 43.1 22.8 34.1 8.9 31.7 59.3 13.8 39.8 46.3
Wilmington 58.3 33.3 8.3 16.7 75.0 8.3 25.0 50.0 25.0
National Association for Law Placement, Inc.® (NALP®)
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