Women and Minorities in Private Practice — Additional Perspectives

From February 2007 NALP Bulletin 

Among law firm employers listed in the 2006-2007 NALP Directory of Legal Employers, 5.01% of partners reported for 2006 were minorities, and 16.72% of associates were minorities. Also, because of expanded demographic data collection in the 2006-2007 Directory, we know that just 1.48% of partners were minority women and just 9.16% of associates were minority women. (For more details, see the press release "Partnership at Law Firms Elusive for Minority Women," which was enclosed with the December 2006 NALP Bulletin and can be found on www.nalp.org under Research & Directories > Press Releases.)

This article takes a closer look at minority representation, providing information on Asian/Pacific Islander, Black/African-American, and Hispanic lawyers at the partnership and associate levels. The very few Native American and multi-racial lawyers are not reported out separately.

Overall, these groups are relatively equally represented at the partner level (Table 1 below). Differences are evident, however, depending on the size of firm. For example, the presence of Black partners, and of Black female partners, increases with firm size, whereas Asian/Pacific Islander partners are most prevalent at the smallest and largest firms. At the city level, the presence of Black partners is highest in Atlanta, Baltimore, Columbus, Detroit, New Orleans, and Washington, DC. The presence of Black female partners exceeds 1% in just four cities: Atlanta, Detroit, Ft. Lauderdale/W. Palm Beach, and Washington, DC. There are few or no Black partners in Orange County, CA, Portland, OR, Raleigh/Durham, Salt Lake City, and San Diego.

Most minority partners are Hispanic in Austin, Miami, and Tampa/St. Petersburg. In each of these cities, the presence of female Hispanic partners is also well above average. Conversely, in 17 of the 44 cities listed, fewer than one half of one percent of partners are Hispanic. Asian/Pacific Islander partners — overall and women specifically — are most common in Los Angeles, Orange County, CA, San Francisco, and San Jose.

Among associates, Asian/Pacific Islanders account for about half of all minority associates at the national level, and also at every firm size. As is the case with partners, cities vary a great deal on these measures (Table 2 below). For example, Black associates are most common by far in Atlanta and New Orleans, followed by Nashville and Baltimore. In each of these cities, Blacks account for most minority associates. The percentage of Black female associates was also highest in Atlanta, New Orleans, and Nashville. Every city reported at least some Black associates.

The pattern for Hispanics is similar to that at the partner level, with representation highest by far in Miami, followed by Austin. However, in a handful of cities there were few or no Hispanic associates. Likewise, the leading cities for Asian/Pacific Islander associates — both overall and for women specifically — are Los Angeles, Orange County, CA, San Francisco, and San Jose, followed by New York. As is the case with Blacks, every city reported at least some Asian/Pacific Islander associates, although a few did not have any female Asian/Pacific Islander associates.

Additional insight on women and minorities at law firms comes from looking at the extent to which women and minorities are represented at each office, rather than for a city or for the nation as a whole. Thus, the fact that 5% of partners as a whole are minorities does not mean that minorities make up 5% of partners at each of the more than 1,500 offices and firms represented in the Directory. In fact, as Table 3 below shows, fully 39% of the offices/firms reported no minority partners, and two-thirds reported no minority women partners. Both of these figures improve with firm size, and most offices — 90% — report a least one woman partner, but less than half — about 45% — have more than the average 18% women partners.

Likewise, 21% of offices/firms have no minority associates, and just over one-third —37% — exceed the average figure of about 17%. (See Table 4 below.) About 31% of offices reported no minority women associates. In each case, smaller firms are more likely to have no minority associates than are larger firms. About one-third of offices reported that 50% or more of associates were women.

Table 1. Partner Demographics at Law Firms — 2006

  PARTNERS ASIAN/P. ISLANDER BLACK/AFRICAN-AMERICAN HISPANIC # of Offices
Total # % Minority % Minority Women Total % % Women Total % % Women Total % % Women
Total 60,394 5.01 1.48 1.78 0.59 1.55 0.48 1.38 0.32 1,523
By size of firm:
50 or fewer lawyers 2,472 5.62 1.58 2.71 0.73 0.81 0.36 1.21 0.32 155
51-100 lawyers 5,864 5.00 1.81 2.35 0.85 1.11 0.43 1.11 0.38 173
101-250 lawyers 16,397 3.62 1.04 1.13 0.38 1.23 0.37 1.04 0.23 316
251-500 lawyers 14,006 4.75 1.34 1.24 0.45 1.75 0.53 1.48 0.26 372
501-700 lawyers 6,115 5.54 1.59 2.13 0.70 1.78 0.56 1.26 0.25 131
701+ lawyers 15,540 6.40 1.91 2.46 0.77 1.91 0.58 1.83 0.46 376
Offices in:
Atlanta 1,754 5.82 1.60 0.91 0.29 3.93 1.20 0.74 0.11 43
Austin 462 7.36 1.95 0.65 0.22 1.73 0.43 4.33 1.30 21
Baltimore 554 3.43 0.72 0.36 0.18 2.71 0.36 0.18 0.18 11
Birmingham 604 2.32 0.99 0.50 0.50 1.66 0.50 0.00 0.00 11
Boston area 1,979 2.93 0.86 1.26 0.61 1.01 0.10 0.56 0.05 36
Charlotte 579 3.80 0.69 0.86 0.17 1.55 0.35 1.38 0.17 19
Chicago 4,277 4.56 1.29 1.73 0.61 1.64 0.47 0.94 0.14 60
Cincinnati 567 2.12 0.35 0.35 0.00 1.41 0.18 0.18 0.00 12
Cleveland 706 3.12 1.27 0.57 0.14 2.12 0.99 0.28 0.14 14
Columbus 589 4.92 0.85 1.70 0.51 2.72 0.34 0.34 0.00 14
Dallas 1,665 5.11 1.32 1.44 0.36 0.90 0.30 2.40 0.60 41
Denver 745 5.23 1.34 1.61 0.40 1.07 0.27 2.15 0.54 26
Detroit area 1,052 4.47 1.43 0.76 0.19 3.23 1.14 0.38 0.00 16
Ft. Lauderdale/W. Palm Beach 305 3.61 1.64 0.66 0.33 1.31 1.31 1.64 0.00 14
Grand Rapids 347 2.02 0.29 0.00 0.00 1.15 0.29 0.86 0.00 8
Hartford 448 2.01 0.67 0.67 0.22 1.12 0.22 0.22 0.22 15
Houston 1,426 5.40 1.26 0.91 0.14 1.68 0.42 2.38 0.49 39
Indianapolis 703 1.85 0.28 0.43 0.00 1.14 0.14 0.28 0.14 11
Kansas City area 773 1.94 0.52 0.78 0.39 0.65 0.13 0.26 0.00 12
Los Angeles area 2,810 9.29 3.13 4.56 1.42 2.03 0.82 2.31 0.78 90
Miami 697 20.09 6.03 1.00 0.57 1.58 0.57 17.36 4.88 22
Milwaukee 739 2.30 0.68 0.54 0.27 0.54 0.00 1.08 0.41 9
Minneapolis/St. Paul 1,363 2.13 0.88 0.73 0.22 0.88 0.37 0.15 0.00 23
Nashville 386 2.07 0.26 0.00 0.00 1.55 0.26 0.52 0.00 9
New Orleans 365 4.38 0.82 0.00 0.00 2.74 0.82 1.64 0.00 9
New York City 7,277 5.13 1.39 2.12 0.66 1.29 0.41 1.39 0.27 144
Northern NJ/Newark area 1,073 2.98 1.03 1.40 0.56 0.65 0.19 0.84 0.19 27
Northern Virginia 438 5.71 1.37 2.74 0.23 2.28 0.91 0.68 0.23 23
Orange Co., CA 502 7.97 2.59 4.38 1.99 0.40 0.00 2.39 0.20 29
Philadelphia 1,312 2.67 1.07 0.69 0.38 1.68 0.53 0.15 0.00 21
Phoenix 719 3.62 0.83 0.83 0.42 0.83 0.00 1.81 0.42 17
Pittsburgh 673 1.49 0.30 0.45 0.15 0.89 0.00 0.00 0.00 12
Portland, OR area 598 2.34 1.00 0.67 0.00 0.50 0.17 0.67 0.50 20
Raleigh/Durham 237 1.69 0.00 0.84 0.00 0.42 0.00 0.42 0.00 13
Richmond 463 3.24 0.86 0.22 0.22 2.59 0.65 0.43 0.00 8
Salt Lake City 207 0.97 0.00 0.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.48 0.00 10
San Diego 540 6.48 1.30 2.59 0.56 0.37 0.00 2.22 0.37 22
San Francisco 1,794 8.36 2.84 4.91 1.78 1.56 0.50 1.28 0.28 58
San Jose area 846 11.94 2.60 8.75 2.25 0.71 0.00 2.01 0.12 43
Seattle area 1,067 6.00 1.59 3.09 1.03 1.31 0.28 0.66 0.09 34
St. Louis 787 2.67 0.64 0.51 0.00 1.78 0.51 0.38 0.13 11
Tampa/St. Petersburg 414 4.83 1.21 0.72 0.24 0.72 0.24 3.38 0.72 14
Washington, DC 5,776 6.15 2.18 2.06 0.74 2.67 1.04 1.32 0.35 137
Wilmington 304 2.30 0.99 0.66 0.33 1.32 0.66 0.33 0.00 12

Source: The 2006-2007 NALP Directory of Legal Employers. For law firms that repeated firmwide demographic information for each office listing, demographic information was retained for just one office to avoid double counting. Some city information includes one or more offices in adjacent suburbs. Orange County includes offices in Costa Mesa, Irvine, and Newport Beach. The San Jose area includes offices in Cupertino, Menlo Park, Mountain View, Palo Alto and E. Palo Alto, Redwood Shores/Redwood City, San Jose, and Sunnyvale. The Northern New Jersey/Newark area includes offices in Newark, Livingston, Rochelle Park, Roseland, West Orange, Florham Park, Hackensack, Morristown, Parsippany, Short Hills, Westfield, Bridgewater, Somerset, and Woodbridge. Northern Virginia includes offices in Falls Church, McLean, Reston, Vienna, and Alexandria. The few Native American and multi-racial lawyers reported are included in the overall minority percentages but are not reported separately.

 

 

Table 2. Associate Demographics at Law Firms — 2006

  ASSOCIATES ASIAN/P. ISLANDER BLACK/AFRICAN-AMERICAN HISPANIC # of Offices
Total # % Minority % Minority Women Total % % Women Total % % Women Total % % Women
Total 59,684 16.72 9.16 8.13 4.42 4.49 2.72 3.44 1.66 1,523
By size of firm:
50 or fewer lawyers 1,745 12.61 6.76 5.96 3.38 2.69 1.66 2.64 1.03 155
51-100 lawyers 4,067 13.23 6.84 6.47 3.42 3.49 1.94 2.29 1.13 173
101-250 lawyers 11,908 12.97 6.89 5.31 2.77 4.22 2.46 2.88 1.35 316
251-500 lawyers 12,476 15.78 8.67 6.20 3.42 5.07 3.03 3.75 1.80 372
501-700 lawyers 8,001 19.61 10.82 11.05 5.89 4.55 2.94 3.29 1.54 131
701+ lawyers 21,487 19.25 10.71 10.21 5.64 4.60 2.83 3.90 1.95 376
Offices in:
Atlanta 1,782 16.22 9.71 3.76 1.96 10.44 6.73 1.46 0.73 43
Austin 363 15.70 8.26 4.41 2.75 3.31 1.38 6.89 3.86 21
Baltimore 357 12.32 7.00 2.80 1.96 8.40 4.20 1.12 0.84 11
Birmingham 349 4.30 1.72 0.29 0.29 4.01 1.43 0.00 0.00 11
Boston area 2,241 11.83 6.38 6.16 3.21 2.86 1.52 2.63 1.61 36
Charlotte 525 7.81 3.05 1.52 0.38 4.76 2.29 1.14 0.19 19
Chicago 3,546 15.12 8.46 7.08 3.81 4.46 2.59 2.88 1.66 60
Cincinnati 418 6.94 4.31 1.44 0.72 5.02 3.11 0.48 0.48 12
Cleveland 639 8.14 4.54 2.97 1.10 3.44 2.66 1.25 0.47 14
Columbus 455 12.31 5.93 4.84 1.98 6.37 3.30 0.66 0.44 14
Dallas 1,680 11.67 6.73 3.15 1.79 3.21 2.08 4.70 2.44 41
Denver 549 12.39 6.74 2.91 2.37 2.73 1.09 5.10 2.19 26
Detroit area 514 10.89 6.81 2.33 0.97 6.61 5.06 1.17 0.39 16
Ft. Lauderdale/W. Palm Beach 205 14.15 7.80 1.46 0.98 5.37 2.93 6.83 3.41 14
Grand Rapids 132 8.33 4.55 1.52 0.00 3.03 2.27 3.03 2.27 8
Hartford 390 7.44 4.36 3.08 1.54 2.05 1.03 2.31 1.79 15
Houston 1,335 15.88 8.16 4.57 2.47 5.54 3.15 5.24 2.25 39
Indianapolis 466 11.37 6.01 2.58 1.29 6.87 3.43 1.72 1.07 11
Kansas City area 524 8.78 4.77 2.67 1.53 3.44 1.72 2.10 0.95 12
Los Angeles area 3,408 25.62 13.56 15.35 8.42 3.67 2.14 5.66 2.52 90
Miami 574 36.41 19.34 2.26 1.39 7.84 5.75 25.61 11.85 22
Milwaukee 409 7.82 4.40 1.71 1.47 3.42 1.47 2.20 1.22 9
Minneapolis/St. Paul 807 10.29 5.20 5.58 2.60 2.97 1.73 0.99 0.37 23
Nashville 268 10.45 7.46 1.87 1.12 8.58 6.34 0.00 0.00 9
New Orleans 196 14.80 9.69 0.51 0.00 11.22 7.65 3.06 2.04 9
New York City 13,549 20.46 11.38 11.69 6.35 4.43 2.78 3.71 1.87 144
Northern NJ/Newark area 1,307 12.70 7.42 4.90 2.68 4.13 2.60 3.37 1.99 27
Northern Virginia 410 14.88 8.78 9.51 5.37 3.41 2.68 1.71 0.49 23
Orange Co., CA 604 20.03 10.26 14.40 7.45 0.50 0.33 4.30 2.32 29
Philadelphia 1,456 10.16 5.77 3.37 1.79 4.33 2.47 1.58 0.82 21
Phoenix 520 12.69 5.58 2.88 1.54 2.12 0.96 5.77 2.12 17
Pittsburgh 528 8.71 5.87 3.79 2.84 2.84 1.52 1.70 1.14 12
Portland, OR area 365 10.41 5.21 5.21 3.56 1.92 0.55 1.37 0.27 20
Raleigh/Durham 174 6.90 4.02 2.30 1.15 2.87 1.72 1.15 1.15 13
Richmond 362 7.18 3.87 1.38 0.83 3.59 1.93 1.38 0.55 8
Salt Lake City 168 7.74 4.17 4.17 1.79 0.60 0.00 2.38 1.79 10
San Diego 646 15.94 9.29 7.89 4.80 2.48 2.01 4.80 2.01 22
San Francisco 1,997 24.64 15.07 16.62 10.27 3.66 2.35 3.66 2.20 58
San Jose area 1,385 33.36 15.96 27.08 13.65 1.73 0.79 3.90 1.37 43
Seattle area 667 16.34 8.10 9.30 5.10 3.00 0.90 2.55 1.35 34
St. Louis 631 9.83 5.55 2.85 1.58 5.07 3.01 1.27 0.95 11
Tampa/St. Petersburg 260 14.62 8.08 2.31 0.77 6.54 6.15 5.38 1.15 14
Washington, DC 6,230 17.96 9.63 8.27 4.22 6.39 4.01 2.65 1.06 137
Wilmington 322 10.56 3.11 4.35 1.24 3.73 1.24 1.55 0.31 12

Source: The 2006-2007 NALP Directory of Legal Employers. For law firms that repeated firmwide demographic information for each office listing, demographic information was retained for just one office to avoid double counting. Some city information includes one or more offices in adjacent suburbs. Orange County includes offices in Costa Mesa, Irvine, and Newport Beach. The San Jose area includes offices in Cupertino, Menlo Park, Mountain View, Palo Alto and East Palo Alto, Redwood Shores/Redwood City, San Jose, and Sunnyvale. The Northern New Jersey/Newark area includes offices in Newark, Livingston, Rochelle Park, Roseland, West Orange, Florham Park, Hackensack, Morristown, Parsippany, Short Hills, Westfield, Bridgewater, Somerset, and Woodbridge. Northern Virginia includes offices in Falls Church, McLean, Reston, Vienna, and Alexandria. The few Native American and multi-racial lawyers reported are included in the overall minority percentages but are not reported separately.

 

 

Table 3. Representation of Women and Minorities Among Law Firm Partners —
(percent of offices in each range of representation)

  WOMEN MINORITIES MINORITY WOMEN # of Offices
None Up to 18% More than 18% None Up to 5% More than 5% None Up to 3% More than 3%
Total 10.6 44.9 44.5 38.7 25.0 36.3 65.9 17.9 16.2 1,523
By size of firm:
50 or fewer lawyers 15.5 41.9 42.6 60.0 10.3 29.7 82.6 1.3 16.1 155
51-100 lawyers 9.2 46.8 43.9 38.7 28.3 32.9 64.2 15.0 20.8 173
101-250 lawyers 8.9 48.1 43.0 36.4 39.6 24.1 63.9 24.7 11.4 316
251-500 lawyers 12.1 38.2 49.7 47.3 19.6 33.1 68.8 18.8 12.4 372
501-700 lawyers 9.2 49.6 41.2 27.5 26.7 45.8 66.4 19.8 13.7 131
701+ lawyers 9.6 47.6 42.8 27.1 22.1 50.8 58.5 18.6 22.9 376
Offices in:
Atlanta 14.0 46.5 39.5 25.6 27.9 46.5 62.8 20.9 16.3 43
Austin 14.3 33.3 52.4 28.6 14.3 57.1 66.7 19.0 14.3 21
Baltimore 9.1 54.5 36.4 27.3 54.5 18.2 63.6 27.3 9.1 11
Birmingham 0.0 63.6 36.4 45.5 45.5 9.1 72.7 18.2 9.1 11
Boston area 5.6 44.4 50.0 50.0 41.7 8.3 66.7 27.8 5.6 36
Charlotte 42.1 52.6 5.3 47.4 26.3 26.3 84.2 15.8 0.0 19
Chicago 3.3 41.7 55.0 30.0 36.7 33.3 56.7 33.3 10.0 60
Cincinnati 8.3 50.0 41.7 50.0 25.0 25.0 83.3 16.7 0.0 12
Cleveland 0.0 35.7 64.3 35.7 42.9 21.4 50.0 28.6 21.4 14
Columbus 14.3 57.1 28.6 28.6 35.7 35.7 64.3 35.7 0.0 14
Dallas 12.2 39.0 48.8 26.8 31.7 41.5 63.4 24.4 12.2 41
Denver 7.7 34.6 57.7 38.5 15.4 46.2 73.1 7.7 19.2 26
Detroit area 0.0 37.5 62.5 6.3 43.8 50.0 37.5 31.3 31.3 16
Ft. Lauderdale/W. Palm Beach 21.4 21.4 57.1 57.1 14.3 28.6 78.6 7.1 14.3 14
Grand Rapids 25.0 62.5 12.5 50.0 37.5 12.5 87.5 12.5 0.0 8
Hartford 20.0 46.7 33.3 53.3 40.0 6.7 80.0 13.3 6.7 15
Houston 12.8 46.2 41.0 28.2 25.6 46.2 61.5 23.1 15.4 39
Indianapolis 18.2 63.6 18.2 45.5 54.5 0.0 81.8 18.2 0.0 11
Kansas City area 8.3 91.7 0.0 41.7 41.7 16.7 66.7 25.0 8.3 12
Los Angeles area 5.6 46.7 47.8 24.4 14.4 61.1 52.2 7.8 40.0 90
Miami 0.0 36.4 63.6 9.1 0.0 90.9 22.7 9.1 68.2 22
Milwaukee 11.1 22.2 66.7 33.3 66.7 0.0 44.4 55.6 0.0 9
Minneapolis/St. Paul 8.7 39.1 52.2 39.1 52.2 8.7 65.2 30.4 4.3 23
Nashville 11.1 55.6 33.3 33.3 55.6 11.1 88.9 11.1 0.0 9
New Orleans 11.1 22.2 66.7 33.3 44.4 22.2 66.7 33.3 0.0 9
New York City 4.9 62.5 32.6 29.2 29.2 41.7 60.4 26.4 13.2 144
Northern NJ/Newark area 22.2 44.4 33.3 44.4 40.7 14.8 74.1 11.1 14.8 27
Northern Virginia 17.4 52.2 30.4 43.5 8.7 47.8 73.9 0.0 26.1 23
Orange Co., CA 34.5 48.3 17.2 41.4 13.8 44.8 79.3 0.0 20.7 29
Philadelphia 0.0 42.9 57.1 38.1 52.4 9.5 52.4 42.9 4.8 21
Phoenix 0.0 47.1 52.9 35.3 35.3 29.4 64.7 29.4 5.9 17
Pittsburgh 0.0 58.3 41.7 50.0 33.3 16.7 83.3 16.7 0.0 12
Portland, OR area 20.0 30.0 50.0 55.0 35.0 10.0 75.0 15.0 10.0 20
Raleigh/Durham 7.7 38.5 53.8 69.2 23.1 7.7 100.0 0.0 0.0 13
Richmond 0.0 100.0 0.0 12.5 87.5 0.0 50.0 50.0 0.0 8
Salt Lake City 20.0 70.0 10.0 80.0 10.0 10.0 100.0 0.0 .10
San Diego 13.6 27.3 59.1 36.4 27.3 36.4 77.3 9.1 13.6 22
San Francisco 6.9 31.0 62.1 27.6 10.3 62.1 56.9 10.3 32.8 58
San Jose area 20.9 46.5 32.6 27.9 0.0 72.1 58.1 9.3 32.6 43
Seattle area 17.6 29.4 52.9 35.3 14.7 50.0 70.6 17.6 11.8 34
St. Louis 0.0 63.6 36.4 27.3 63.6 9.1 54.5 45.5 0.0 11
Tampa/St. Petersburg 14.3 57.1 28.6 50.0 7.1 42.9 78.6 14.3 7.1 14
Washington, DC 5.1 39.4 55.5 27.7 27.0 45.3 52.6 26.3 21.2 137
Wilmington 25.0 50.0 25.0 66.7 8.3 25.0 75.0 16.7 8.3 12
States:
Other areas in California 31.8 18.2 50.0 50.0 9.1 40.9 77.3 0.0 22.7 22
Other areas in Florida 5.6 38.9 55.6 55.6 5.6 38.9 72.2 5.6 22.2 18
Kentucky 0.0 42.9 57.1 28.6 57.1 14.3 57.1 28.6 14.3 7
Nevada 12.5 31.3 56.3 75.0 6.3 18.8 87.5 0.0 12.5 16
Other areas in New York State 6.3 68.8 25.0 68.8 12.5 18.8 93.8 0.0 6.3 16
Other areas in Texas 7.1 42.9 50.0 28.6 14.3 57.1 64.3 7.1 28.6 14

Source: The 2006-2007 NALP Directory of Legal Employers. For law firms that repeated firm-wide demographic information for each office listing, demographic information was retained for just one office to avoid double-counting. State figures exclude cities reported separately.

 

 

Table 4. Representation of Women and Minorities Among Law Firm Associates — 2006 (percent of offices in each range of representation)

  WOMEN MINORITIES MINORITY WOMEN # of Offices
Less than 40% 40-49.9% 50% or More None Up to 17% More than 17% None Up to 9% More than 9%
Total 34.4 30.6 35.0 20.8 42.3 37.0 31.0 30.2 38.8 1,523
By size of firm:
50 or fewer lawyers 40.0 23.9 36.1 43.9 30.3 25.8 61.3 11.6 27.1 155
51-100 lawyers 41.6 26.0 32.4 18.5 52.6 28.9 30.6 41.6 27.7 173
101-250 lawyers 32.5 29.0 38.5 21.0 53.2 25.8 30.6 39.8 29.6 316
251-500 lawyers 34.1 29.5 36.3 28.2 37.7 34.1 38.5 25.5 36.0 372
501-700 lawyers 33.6 38.2 28.2 6.1 40.5 53.4 17.6 26.0 56.5 131
701+ lawyers 30.9 35.1 34.0 9.8 38.6 51.6 16.2 30.9 52.9 376
Offices in:
Atlanta 30.2 32.6 37.2 9.3 51.2 39.5 23.3 30.2 46.5 43
Austin 71.4 19.0 9.5 9.5 42.9 47.6 28.6 33.3 38.1 21
Baltimore 36.4 27.3 36.4 9.1 72.7 18.2 18.2 54.5 27.3 11
Birmingham 54.5 18.2 27.3 45.5 45.5 9.1 54.5 36.4 9.1 11
Boston area 25.0 38.9 36.1 8.3 69.4 22.2 19.4 61.1 19.4 36
Charlotte 42.1 47.4 10.5 42.1 52.6 5.3 47.4 52.6 0.0 19
Chicago 31.7 41.7 26.7 15.0 55.0 30.0 25.0 41.7 33.3 60
Cincinnati 33.3 16.7 50.0 25.0 66.7 8.3 50.0 33.3 16.7 12
Cleveland 42.9 35.7 21.4 21.4 78.6 0.0 28.6 64.3 7.1 14
Columbus 21.4 42.9 35.7 7.1 71.4 21.4 28.6 35.7 35.7 14
Dallas 56.1 19.5 24.4 14.6 70.7 14.6 17.1 58.5 24.4 41
Denver 15.4 38.5 46.2 19.2 57.7 23.1 42.3 34.6 23.1 26
Detroit area 31.3 43.8 25.0 37.5 43.8 18.8 37.5 37.5 25.0 16
Ft. Lauderdale/W. Palm Beach 23.1 15.4 61.5 38.5 23.1 38.5 38.5 15.4 46.2 14
Grand Rapids 37.5 25.0 37.5 62.5 37.5 0.0 75.0 12.5 12.5 8
Hartford 53.3 13.3 33.3 40.0 53.3 6.7 53.3 26.7 20.0 15
Houston 41.0 25.6 33.3 20.5 35.9 43.6 33.3 25.6 41.0 39
Indianapolis 27.3 54.5 18.2 18.2 72.7 9.1 27.3 45.5 27.3 11
Kansas City area 54.5 27.3 18.2 18.2 81.8 0.0 27.3 63.6 9.1 12
Los Angeles area 28.9 27.8 43.3 6.7 18.9 74.4 12.2 15.6 72.2 90
Miami 27.3 27.3 45.5 4.5 4.5 90.9 9.1 4.5 86.4 22
Milwaukee 11.1 55.6 33.3 11.1 88.9 0.0 33.3 55.6 11.1 9
Minneapolis/St. Paul 43.5 26.1 30.4 26.1 56.5 17.4 39.1 34.8 26.1 23
Nashville 22.2 33.3 44.4 44.4 33.3 22.2 44.4 33.3 22.2 9
New Orleans 33.3 11.1 55.6 11.1 44.4 44.4 22.2 22.2 55.6 9
New York City 27.8 42.4 29.9 11.1 33.3 55.6 14.6 27.8 57.6 144
Northern NJ/Newark area 29.6 44.4 25.9 18.5 63.0 18.5 22.2 55.6 22.2 27
Northern Virginia 47.8 21.7 30.4 26.1 34.8 39.1 39.1 21.7 39.1 23
Orange Co., CA 55.2 20.7 24.1 10.3 34.5 55.2 20.7 24.1 55.2 29
Philadelphia 19.0 47.6 33.3 19.0 71.4 9.5 28.6 42.9 28.6 21
Phoenix 47.1 23.5 29.4 17.6 64.7 17.6 23.5 64.7 11.8 17
Pittsburgh 58.3 25.0 16.7 16.7 83.3 0.0 33.3 58.3 8.3 12
Portland, OR area 40.0 25.0 35.0 25.0 45.0 30.0 45.0 20.0 35.0 20
Raleigh/Durham 46.2 15.4 38.5 46.2 53.8 0.0 69.2 15.4 15.4 13
Richmond 25.0 50.0 25.0 25.0 75.0 0.0 37.5 50.0 12.5 8
Salt Lake City 90.0 10.0 0.0 30.0 50.0 20.0 50.0 20.0 30.0 10
San Diego 31.8 31.8 36.4 22.7 31.8 45.5 31.8 18.2 50.0 22
San Francisco 15.5 20.7 63.8 5.2 17.2 77.6 8.6 13.8 77.6 58
San Jose area 44.2 30.2 25.6 7.0 2.3 90.7 20.9 9.3 69.8 43
Seattle area 11.8 38.2 50.0 29.4 32.4 38.2 41.2 17.6 41.2 34
St. Louis 45.5 45.5 9.1 18.2 63.6 18.2 27.3 63.6 9.1 11
Tampa/St. Petersburg 35.7 28.6 35.7 28.6 50.0 21.4 42.9 35.7 21.4 14
Washington, DC 27.2 30.9 41.9 10.3 38.2 51.5 17.6 31.6 50.7 137
Wilmington 50.0 41.7 8.3 25.0 58.3 16.7 41.7 50.0 8.3 12
States:
Other areas in California 27.3 27.3 45.5 27.3 40.9 31.8 54.5 27.3 18.2 22
Other areas in Florida 22.2 27.8 50.0 33.3 27.8 38.9 50.0 16.7 33.3 18
Kentucky 28.6 42.9 28.6 14.3 85.7 0.0 14.3 85.7 0.0 7
Nevada 56.3 25.0 18.8 43.8 18.8 37.5 56.3 12.5 31.3 16
Other areas in New York State 31.3 31.3 37.5 31.3 68.8 0.0 50.0 31.3 18.8 16
Other areas in Texas 50.0 21.4 28.6 35.7 7.1 57.1 42.9 21.4 35.7 14

Source: The 2006-2007 NALP Directory of Legal Employers. For law firms that repeated firm-wide demographic information for each office listing, demographic information was retained for just one office to avoid double-counting. State figures exclude cities reported separately.

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