A Closer Look at Women and Minorities in Law Firms — By Race and Ethnicity

NALP Research, February 2008, NALP Bulletin

Among law firm employers listed in the 2007-2008 NALP Directory of Legal Employers, 5.40% of partners were minorities and 18.07% of associates were minorities. Just 1.65% of partners were minority women, and just 10.07% of associates were minority women. (For more details see the press release "Minority Women Still Underrepresented in Law Firm Partnership Ranks," which was spotlighted in the November 1 edition of NALPnow!) But these national averages do not tell the whole story. The representation of minorities by specific race and ethnicity varies considerably by size of law firm and geography.

This article takes a closer look at representation of specific minority groups at the partnership and associate levels. The term minorities as used here includes lawyers identified as Black, Hispanic, Native American, Asian/Pacific Islander, and multi-racial. The very few reported Native American and multi-racial lawyers are not broken out separately.

Overall, these groups are relatively equally represented at the partner level (Table 1). Differences are evident, however, depending on the size of the firm. For example, the presence of Black partners, and of Black female partners, increases with firm size, whereas Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Islander partners are most prevalent at smaller and at the largest firms. At the city level, the presence of Black partners is highest in Atlanta, Baltimore, and Detroit. The presence of Black female partners exceeds 1% in just five cities: Atlanta, Birmingham, Detroit, Ft. Lauderdale/West Palm Beach, and Washington, DC. Black partners account for 0.5% or fewer of partners in Las Vegas, Orange County, CA, Portland, OR, and Salt Lake City.

Most minority partners are Hispanic in Austin, Miami, Orlando, and Tampa/St. Petersburg. In each of these cities, the presence of female Hispanic partners is also above average. Conversely, in 13 of the 47 cities listed, fewer than 0.5% of partners are Hispanic. Asian/Pacific Islander partners — overall and women specifically — are most common in the Los Angeles and Orange County, CA areas, and in the San Francisco and San Jose areas.

Among associates, Asian/Pacific Islanders account for about half of all minority associates at the national level, and also at every firm size. As is the case with partners, cities vary a great deal on these measures (Table 2). For example, Black associates are most common by far in Atlanta and New Orleans, followed by Detroit, Indianapolis, and Tampa. In each of these cities except Tampa, Blacks account for about two-thirds of minority associates. The percentage of Black female associates was also highest in these cities. Every city reported at least some Black associates, though not every city reported Black female associates.

The pattern for Hispanic associates is similar to that at the partner level, with representation highest by far in Miami, followed by Ft. Lauderdale/West Palm Beach, and Austin. Every city reported at least some Hispanic female associates. The leading cities for Asian/Pacific Islander associates — both overall and for women specifically — are the San Francisco and San Jose areas, followed by the Los Angeles and Orange County areas and New York City. Every city except Birmingham reported at least some Asian/Pacific Islander associates.

Additional insight on women and minorities at law firms comes from looking at the extent to which women and minorities are represented at each office, rather than for a city or for the nation as a whole. Thus, the fact that just over 5% of partners as a whole are minorities does not mean that minorities make up 5% of partners at each of the more than 1,500 offices and firms represented in the Directory. In fact, as Table 3 shows, over one-third of the offices/firms reported no minority partners, and almost two-thirds reported no minority women partners. Both of these figures improve with firm size, and most offices — 89% — report at least one woman partner, but less than half — about 47% — have more than the average 18% of women partners.

Likewise, 19% of offices/firms have no minority associates, and 40% exceed the average figures of about 18%. (See Table 4.) About 29% of offices reported no minority women associates. In each case, small firms are more likely to have no minority associates than are larger firms. About 37% of offices reported that 50% or more of associates were women.

Table 1. Partner Demographics at Law Firms — 2007


Partners by Race or Ethnicity

All Partners Asian/Pacific Islander Black/African American Hispanic # of Offices
Total # %
Minority
% Minority
Women
Total % %
Women
Total % %
Women
Total % %
Women
Total 61,297 5.40 1.65 1.94 0.68 1.64 0.50 1.56 0.39 1,562
By Size of Firm:
50 or fewer lawyers 2,501 4.48 1.48 1.84 0.64 0.68 0.20 1.64 0.56 155
51-100 lawyers 5,501 5.13 1.87 2.62 1.04 1.00 0.40 1.05 0.25 156
101-250 lawyers 15,754 4.16 1.28 1.35 0.48 1.37 0.45 1.23 0.29 300
251-500 lawyers 13,719 4.95 1.43 1.30 0.50 1.84 0.55 1.55 0.31 374
501-700 lawyers 7,159 5.96 1.84 2.26 0.80 1.97 0.61 1.55 0.36 178
701+ lawyers 16,663 6.92 2.06 2.68 0.86 1.95 0.55 2.05 0.58 399
Offices in:
Atlanta 1,767 6.28 2.09 1.25 0.40 3.79 1.25 1.02 0.45 43
Austin 479 8.35 2.51 0.63 0.21 1.88 0.42 5.01 1.67 21
Baltimore 550 3.82 0.73 0.18 0.18 3.09 0.36 0.36 0.18 11
Birmingham 366 2.46 1.09 0.00 0.00 2.19 1.09 0.00 0.00 8
Boston area 1,933 3.16 1.14 1.35 0.72 1.14 0.21 0.57 0.10 37
Charlotte 624 4.01 1.12 0.64 0.00 2.08 0.80 1.12 0.16 20
Chicago 4,422 5.16 1.72 2.01 0.75 1.83 0.61 1.18 0.29 63
Cincinnati 456 1.97 0.44 0.66 0.00 1.10 0.22 0.22 0.22 12
Cleveland 686 3.64 1.17 1.31 0.29 1.75 0.73 0.44 0.15 13
Columbus 565 4.42 0.53 1.42 0.18 2.48 0.35 0.35 0.00 13
Dallas 1,458 5.28 1.37 1.51 0.41 1.03 0.34 2.13 0.48 39
Denver 652 5.83 1.53 1.69 0.46 1.38 0.31 2.15 0.46 24
Detroit area 986 4.56 1.42 0.61 0.20 3.14 1.12 0.61 0.00 15
Ft. Lauderdale/W. Palm Beach 259 8.11 3.09 0.77 0.77 1.93 1.54 5.41 0.77 18
Grand Rapids 374 1.60 0.27 0.00 0.00 0.80 0.27 0.80 0.00 9
Hartford 331 3.32 1.21 0.91 0.60 1.81 0.30 0.60 0.30 15
Houston 1,404 5.91 1.50 0.93 0.28 1.71 0.36 3.13 0.78 40
Indianapolis 726 1.93 0.28 0.28 0.00 1.24 0.14 0.41 0.14 13
Kansas City area 786 2.04 0.51 0.51 0.25 1.02 0.25 0.25 0.00 13
Las Vegas 175 2.29 0.00 1.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.14 0.00 16
Los Angeles area 2,433 10.77 3.41 5.30 1.64 1.89 0.53 3.08 1.15 86
Miami 768 21.74 5.99 0.65 0.26 1.95 0.52 18.62 5.08 25
Milwaukee 746 2.68 0.94 0.67 0.40 0.80 0.13 1.21 0.40 9
Minneapolis/St. Paul 1,414 2.40 0.71 0.99 0.50 0.78 0.07 0.28 0.00 25
Nashville 377 1.86 0.53 0.00 0.00 1.33 0.53 0.53 0.00 9
New Orleans 389 4.37 0.77 0.26 0.00 2.57 0.77 1.29 0.00 10
New York City 7,339 5.68 1.61 2.53 0.84 1.38 0.41 1.58 0.30 143
Northern NJ/Newark area 1,160 3.53 1.29 1.29 0.60 0.86 0.26 1.38 0.43 28
Northern Virginia 439 6.15 2.05 2.96 0.91 2.05 0.68 1.14 0.46 22
Orange Co., CA 597 8.54 2.68 5.03 1.84 0.34 0.00 2.68 0.50 32
Orlando 252 5.95 0.79 0.00 0.00 1.59 0.00 3.97 0.79 9
Philadelphia 1,215 3.21 1.07 0.99 0.49 1.73 0.49 0.41 0.00 22
Phoenix 786 3.69 1.02 1.02 0.51 0.64 0.00 1.91 0.51 20
Pittsburgh 582 2.58 1.37 1.03 0.52 1.20 0.52 0.34 0.34 12
Portland, OR area 597 2.68 1.01 1.01 0.17 0.50 0.34 0.84 0.34 22
Raleigh/Durham 219 2.74 0.00 1.37 0.00 0.91 0.00 0.46 0.00 12
Richmond 486 3.09 0.82 0.41 0.41 2.26 0.41 0.41 0.00 10
Sacramento 163 6.75 2.45 3.07 1.23 1.84 0.61 1.23 0.61 10
Salt Lake City 171 1.75 0.58 0.58 0.58 0.00 0.00 1.17 0.00 10
San Diego 568 6.16 1.58 2.64 0.88 0.53 0.18 2.29 0.35 24
San Francisco 1,890 9.15 3.33 5.40 2.12 1.75 0.58 1.38 0.42 65
San Jose area 848 12.50 2.83 8.96 2.48 0.71 0.00 2.36 0.12 41
Seattle area 1,049 6.48 2.10 3.81 1.33 1.33 0.29 0.86 0.29 33
St. Louis 759 2.90 0.79 0.53 0.13 1.84 0.53 0.40 0.13 10
Tampa/St. Petersburg 478 4.60 1.05 0.21 0.00 0.63 0.21 3.77 0.84 17
Washington, D.C. 5,877 6.38 2.11 2.01 0.65 2.84 1.12 1.34 0.29 136
Wilmington 348 3.16 1.15 0.57 0.29 1.72 0.86 0.86 0.00 17

 

Source: The 2007-2008 NALP Directory of Legal Employers. For law firms that repeated firmwide demographic information for each office listing, demographic information was retained for just one office to avoid double counting. Some city information includes one or more offices in adjacent suburbs. Orange County includes offices Costa Mesa, Irvine, and Newport Beach. The San Jose area includes offices in Cupertino, Menlo Park, Mountain View, View, Palo Alto and E. Palo Alto, Redwood Shores/Redwood City, San Jose, and Sunnyvale. The Northern New Jersey/Newark area includes offices in Newark, Livingston, Saddle Brook, Roseland, West Orange, Florham Park, Hackensack, Morristown, Parsippany, Short Hills, Westfield, Bridgewater, Somerset, and Woodbridge. Northern Virginia includes offices in Falls Church, McLean/Tysons Corner, Reston, Vienna, and Alexandria. The few Native American and multi-racial lawyers reported are included in the overall minority percentages but are not reported separately.

 

Table 2. Associate Demographics at Law Firms — 2007


Associates by Race or Ethnicity

All Associates Asian/Pacific Islander Black/African American Hispanic # of Offices
Total # %
Minority
% Minority
Women
Total % %
Women
Total % %
Women
Total % %
Women
Total 60,715 18.07 10.07 8.94 4.96 4.65 2.85 3.68 1.84 1,562
By Size of Firm:
50 or fewer lawyers 1,810 13.81 7.85 6.63 3.65 2.71 1.88 3.04 1.66 155
51-100 lawyers 3,716 13.67 7.51 6.65 3.47 3.26 1.96 2.61 1.48 156
101-250 lawyers 10,780 14.72 8.02 6.44 3.40 4.35 2.52 3.16 1.69 300
251-500 lawyers 12,275 15.62 8.56 6.57 3.58 5.07 3.04 3.32 1.62 374
501-700 lawyers 9,009 19.94 11.03 11.08 6.17 4.51 2.83 3.51 1.61 178
701+ lawyers 23,125 21.25 12.04 11.07 6.30 5.00 3.13 4.40 2.20 399
Offices in:
Atlanta 1,755 16.87 10.88 4.27 2.51 10.71 7.35 1.60 0.80 43
Austin 398 15.33 7.04 4.52 2.26 3.27 1.26 6.78 3.52 21
Baltimore 343 11.95 6.12 4.08 2.92 5.83 1.75 1.46 1.17 11
Birmingham 182 5.49 2.75 0.00 0.00 4.40 2.20 0.55 0.55 8
Boston area 2,250 13.24 6.89 7.20 3.56 2.89 1.51 2.62 1.60 37
Charlotte 596 10.23 5.03 2.68 1.01 5.87 3.19 1.17 0.50 20
Chicago 3,685 16.20 9.31 8.17 4.69 4.61 2.55 2.77 1.63 63
Cincinnati 292 10.27 5.48 3.08 1.03 6.16 3.42 1.03 1.03 12
Cleveland 578 7.96 4.50 2.08 0.69 3.81 2.42 1.73 1.04 13
Columbus 406 11.58 5.91 4.43 1.72 6.40 3.69 0.25 0.25 13
Dallas 1,498 12.42 6.34 3.34 1.80 3.94 2.34 4.67 2.07 39
Denver 491 12.02 6.92 3.67 3.05 2.65 1.43 4.68 1.83 24
Detroit area 481 13.10 7.90 2.70 1.25 8.73 5.82 1.25 0.42 15
Ft. Lauderdale/W. Palm Beach 174 14.37 9.77 2.87 2.30 3.45 2.30 8.05 5.17 18
Grand Rapids 144 11.11 6.94 3.47 1.39 4.17 3.47 2.78 2.08 9
Hartford 277 8.30 6.14 2.17 1.81 3.25 2.17 2.89 2.17 15
Houston 1,324 20.47 11.56 6.57 3.93 7.10 4.08 6.27 3.25 40
Indianapolis 441 12.47 7.71 2.49 1.13 7.94 4.99 1.81 1.36 13
Kansas City area 452 9.07 5.53 3.32 2.21 2.88 1.77 1.99 0.88 13
Las Vegas 223 13.90 8.52 6.28 4.93 2.69 1.79 4.04 1.35 16
Los Angeles area 3,072 28.84 15.53 16.99 9.31 4.20 2.77 6.41 2.86 86
Miami 618 35.11 18.45 1.78 1.46 6.63 4.53 25.73 11.97 25
Milwaukee 443 9.03 4.74 2.48 1.58 3.39 1.13 2.48 1.81 9
Minneapolis/St. Paul 857 10.62 5.48 6.18 2.92 2.80 1.87 1.05 0.47 25
Nashville 271 8.86 6.64 2.58 1.85 5.90 4.43 0.37 0.37 9
New Orleans 204 15.69 9.80 1.47 0.49 10.78 7.35 2.94 1.96 10
New York City 13,551 21.95 12.43 12.35 6.94 4.61 2.91 4.00 2.01 143
Northern NJ/Newark area 1,349 11.79 7.12 4.89 2.89 3.85 2.52 2.59 1.56 28
Northern Virginia 394 15.48 8.88 9.14 5.08 4.06 2.79 1.78 0.76 22
Orange Co., CA 692 20.95 10.40 14.02 7.23 1.16 0.43 4.77 2.31 32
Orlando 174 14.94 9.20 1.72 1.15 6.90 4.60 6.32 3.45 9
Philadelphia 1,340 12.46 7.46 5.37 2.91 5.00 3.13 1.57 0.97 22
Phoenix 558 13.44 5.73 3.58 1.97 1.79 0.54 5.91 2.15 20
Pittsburgh 466 7.73 5.36 2.58 1.72 3.65 2.15 1.29 1.29 12
Portland, OR area 388 11.34 6.19 6.19 4.38 1.55 0.26 1.80 0.52 22
Raleigh/Durham 163 7.36 3.68 2.45 0.61 3.07 2.45 1.23 0.61 12
Richmond 370 8.38 5.14 2.43 1.62 4.05 2.16 1.35 0.81 10
Sacramento 155 14.84 7.10 8.39 3.87 1.29 0.00 2.58 1.29 10
Salt Lake City 166 7.23 3.01 3.61 1.20 0.60 0.00 2.41 1.81 10
San Diego 696 19.54 11.21 9.91 5.32 2.73 2.30 5.03 2.44 24
San Francisco 2,111 26.76 15.59 17.72 10.33 3.60 2.27 4.55 2.61 65
San Jose area 1,444 34.70 16.83 27.98 14.54 2.08 0.69 3.74 1.32 41
Seattle area 669 17.19 9.57 9.42 5.83 3.59 1.79 2.69 0.90 33
St. Louis 589 11.38 6.79 3.40 1.87 5.77 3.74 1.36 1.19 10
Tampa/St. Petersburg 289 15.57 9.69 1.73 1.04 7.96 6.23 5.19 2.42 17
Washington, D.C. 6,437 18.97 10.33 9.06 4.78 6.35 4.05 2.92 1.23 136
Wilmington 361 10.53 4.16 4.43 1.66 3.05 1.11 2.49 1.11 17

Source: The 2007-2008 NALP Directory of Legal Employers. For law firms that repeated firmwide demographic information for each office listing, demographic information was retained for just one office to avoid double counting. Some city information includes one or more offices in adjacent suburbs. Orange County includes offices Costa Mesa, Irvine, and Newport Beach. The San Jose area includes offices in Cupertino, Menlo Park, Mountain View, View, Palo Alto and E. Palo Alto, Redwood Shores/Redwood City, San Jose, and Sunnyvale. The Northern New Jersey/Newark area includes offices in Newark, Livingston, Saddle Brook, Roseland, West Orange, Florham Park, Hackensack, Morristown, Parsippany, Short Hills, Westfield, Bridgewater, Somerset, and Woodbridge. Northern Virginia includes offices in Falls Church, McLean/Tysons Corner, Reston, Vienna, and Alexandria. The few Native American and multi-racial lawyers reported are included in the overall minority. percentages but are not reported separately.

 

Table 3. Representation of Women and Minorities Among Law Firm Partners — 2007
(percent of offices in each range of representation)


Women Minorities Minority Women
None Up to 18% More than 18% None Up to 5% More than 5% None Up to 3% More than 3%
Total 10.8 42.4 46.8 35.8 24.2 40.1 63.0 19.3 17.7
By Size of Firm:
50 or fewer lawyers 11.0 42.6 46.5 63.2 8.4 28.4 83.9 —   16.1
51-100 lawyers 7.1 46.5 46.5 34.8 32.3 32.9 63.2 18.1 18.7
101-250 lawyers 10.0 45.3 44.7 31.0 40.0 29.0 57.7 29.3 13.0
251-500 lawyers 15.5 37.5 46.9 44.0 19.6 36.5 66.2 19.8 13.9
501-700 lawyers 8.4 39.3 52.2 31.5 21.9 46.6 64.0 18.0 18.0
701+ lawyers 9.3 44.6 46.1 23.3 20.6 56.1 55.4 19.8 24.8
Offices in:
Atlanta 7.0 48.8 44.2 20.9 23.3 55.8 58.1 18.6 23.3
Austin 14.3 23.8 61.9 28.6 9.5 61.9 61.9 4.8 33.3
Baltimore 9.1 27.3 63.6 27.3 45.5 27.3 63.6 27.3 9.1
Birmingham —   62.5 37.5 50.0 37.5 12.5 62.5 25.0 12.5
Boston area 8.1 29.7 62.2 48.6 37.8 13.5 67.6 24.3 8.1
Charlotte 45.0 40.0 15.0 40.0 30.0 30.0 75.0 20.0 5.0
Chicago 4.8 42.9 52.4 25.4 25.4 49.2 47.6 39.7 12.7
Cincinnati 8.3 50.0 41.7 58.3 25.0 16.7 83.3 16.7 —  
Cleveland 7.7 38.5 53.8 38.5 30.8 30.8 46.2 38.5 15.4
Columbus 7.7 69.2 23.1 23.1 46.2 30.8 76.9 23.1 —  
Dallas 12.8 41.0 46.2 15.4 33.3 51.3 59.0 25.6 15.4
Denver 8.3 37.5 54.2 33.3 20.8 45.8 70.8 8.3 20.8
Detroit area —   40.0 60.0 6.7 60.0 33.3 40.0 40.0 20.0
Ft. Lauderdale/W. Palm Beach 16.7 27.8 55.6 38.9 5.6 55.6 66.7 —   33.3
Grand Rapids 11.1 77.8 11.1 55.6 33.3 11.1 88.9 11.1 —  
Hartford 20.0 46.7 33.3 40.0 33.3 26.7 73.3 13.3 13.3
Houston 15.0 42.5 42.5 35.0 25.0 40.0 62.5 22.5 15.0
Indianapolis 7.7 46.2 46.2 46.2 53.8 —   84.6 15.4 —  
Kansas City area 7.7 61.5 30.8 38.5 53.8 7.7 69.2 30.8 —  
Las Vegas 12.5 31.3 56.3 81.3 6.3 12.5 100.0 —   —  
Los Angeles area 8.1 43.0 48.8 24.4 5.8 69.8 54.7 8.1 37.2
Miami 4.0 48.0 48.0 4.0 4.0 92.0 28.0 —   72.0
Milwaukee 11.1 33.3 55.6 33.3 66.7 —   33.3 66.7 —  
Minneapolis/St. Paul 8.0 36.0 56.0 40.0 52.0 8.0 72.0 28.0 —  
Nashville 11.1 44.4 44.4 44.4 44.4 11.1 77.8 22.2 —  
New Orleans 10.0 30.0 60.0 40.0 30.0 30.0 70.0 30.0 —  
New York City 8.4 61.5 30.1 21.0 29.4 49.7 53.8 29.4 16.8
Nothern NJ/Newark area 14.3 53.6 32.1 42.9 32.1 25.0 67.9 21.4 10.7
Northern Virginia 13.6 50.0 36.4 31.8 18.2 50.0 63.6 —   36.4
Orange Co., CA 25.0 56.3 18.8 40.6 9.4 50.0 75.0 3.1 21.9
Orlando 11.1 55.6 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3 77.8 22.2 —  
Philadelphia —   54.5 45.5 36.4 45.5 18.2 54.5 45.5 —  
Phoenix —   40.0 60.0 40.0 40.0 20.0 65.0 25.0 10.0
Pittsburgh —   41.7 58.3 41.7 41.7 16.7 66.7 25.0 8.3
Portland, OR area 28.6 23.8 47.6 47.6 33.3 19.0 71.4 19.0 9.5
Raleigh/Durham 16.7 41.7 41.7 58.3 25.0 16.7 100.0 —   —  
Richmond 10.0 70.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 —   70.0 30.0 —  
Sacramento 20.0 20.0 60.0 60.0 —   40.0 80.0 —   20.0
Salt Lake City 30.0 50.0 20.0 70.0 20.0 10.0 90.0 10.0 —  
San Diego 20.8 25.0 54.2 37.5 20.8 41.7 70.8 8.3 20.8
San Francisco 7.7 27.7 64.6 27.7 10.8 61.5 50.8 7.7 41.5
San Jose area 14.6 34.1 51.2 19.5 —   80.5 56.1 9.8 34.1
Seattle area 15.2 24.2 60.6 33.3 18.2 48.5 72.7 15.2 12.1
St. Louis —   70.0 30.0 20.0 60.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 —  
Tampa/St. Petersburg 11.8 41.2 47.1 47.1 17.6 35.3 82.4 11.8 5.9
Washington, D.C. 6.6 36.0 57.4 25.0 19.9 55.1 48.5 29.4 22.1
Wilmington 11.8 52.9 35.3 58.8 11.8 29.4 82.4 11.8 5.9
States:
Other areas in California 10.0 40.0 50.0 40.0 20.0 40.0 70.0 10.0 20.0
Other areas in Connecticut 26.7 20.0 53.3 80.0 13.3 6.7 93.3 6.7 —  
Kentucky —   28.6 71.4 14.3 57.1 28.6 57.1 28.6 14.3
Other areas in New York State —   56.3 43.8 56.3 25.0 18.8 87.5 6.3 6.3
Other areas in Texas 7.1 50.0 42.9 35.7 14.3 50.0 64.3 7.1 28.6

 


Table 4. Representation of Women and Minorities Among Law Firm Associates — 2007

(percent of offices in each range of representation)


Women Minorities Minority Women

Less than 40% 40 - 49.9% 50% or more None Up to 18% More than 18% None Up to 9% More than 9%
Total 32.7 29.9 37.4 19.4 40.6 40.1 29.3 26.8 43.9
By Size of Firm:
50 or fewer lawyers 40.0 22.6 37.4 42.6 28.4 29.0 54.2 11.0 34.8
51-100 lawyers 38.5 26.9 34.6 18.6 46.8 34.6 33.3 34.0 32.7
101-250 lawyers 33.2 33.6 33.2 18.8 50.3 30.9 27.9 35.6 36.6
251-500 lawyers 33.9 24.4 41.7 28.2 40.9 30.9 38.8 25.5 35.8
501-700 lawyers 29.8 30.9 39.3 10.7 37.1 52.2 24.2 20.2 55.6
701+ lawyers 27.3 35.8 36.8 6.8 36.8 56.4 12.8 27.6 59.6
Offices in:
Atlanta 20.9 39.5 39.5 7.0 46.5 46.5 23.3 18.6 58.1
Austin 47.6 38.1 14.3 19.0 28.6 52.4 38.1 28.6 33.3
Baltimore 27.3 36.4 36.4 9.1 63.6 27.3 45.5 36.4 18.2
Birmingham 37.5 37.5 25.0 37.5 50.0 12.5 50.0 37.5 12.5
Boston area 21.6 45.9 32.4 16.2 64.9 18.9 27.0 48.6 24.3
Charlotte 55.0 15.0 30.0 25.0 70.0 5.0 35.0 50.0 15.0
Chicago 28.6 36.5 34.9 12.7 50.8 36.5 17.5 42.9 39.7
Cincinnati 41.7 25.0 33.3 16.7 66.7 16.7 41.7 41.7 16.7
Cleveland 30.8 30.8 38.5 15.4 84.6 —   38.5 53.8 7.7
Columbus 15.4 46.2 38.5 7.7 61.5 30.8 30.8 23.1 46.2
Dallas 55.3 26.3 18.4 7.9 63.2 28.9 21.1 44.7 34.2
Denver 29.2 29.2 41.7 20.8 54.2 25.0 45.8 20.8 33.3
Detroit area 26.7 40.0 33.3 26.7 46.7 26.7 26.7 40.0 33.3
Ft. Lauderdale/W. Palm Beach 41.2 5.9 52.9 5.9 64.7 29.4 23.5 23.5 52.9
Grand Rapids 33.3 33.3 33.3 44.4 55.6 . 55.6 22.2 22.2
Hartford 33.3 20.0 46.7 40.0 46.7 13.3 40.0 26.7 33.3
Houston 46.2 30.8 23.1 12.8 38.5 48.7 20.5 25.6 53.8
Indianapolis 38.5 38.5 23.1 38.5 30.8 30.8 38.5 30.8 30.8
Kansas City area 53.8 15.4 30.8 30.8 53.8 15.4 38.5 38.5 23.1
Las Vegas 50.0 31.3 18.8 25.0 37.5 37.5 50.0 12.5 37.5
Los Angeles area 24.4 25.6 50.0 7.0 9.3 83.7 12.8 14.0 73.3
Miami 20.0 16.0 64.0 4.0 4.0 92.0 8.0 4.0 88.0
Milwaukee 11.1 66.7 22.2 11.1 88.9 —   22.2 77.8 —  
Minneapolis/St. Paul 32.0 24.0 44.0 28.0 60.0 12.0 32.0 44.0 24.0
Nashville 33.3 33.3 33.3 66.7 33.3 —   66.7 11.1 22.2
New Orleans 10.0 20.0 70.0 10.0 60.0 30.0 20.0 20.0 60.0
New York City 21.7 43.4 35.0 8.4 25.9 65.7 11.2 17.5 71.3
Nothern NJ/Newark area 35.7 35.7 28.6 21.4 53.6 25.0 25.0 42.9 32.1
Northern Virginia 50.0 9.1 40.9 22.7 45.5 31.8 31.8 27.3 40.9
Orange Co., CA 59.4 21.9 18.8 15.6 28.1 56.3 34.4 18.8 46.9
Orlando —   66.7 33.3 22.2 44.4 33.3 33.3 —   66.7
Philadelphia 31.8 27.3 40.9 18.2 68.2 13.6 18.2 50.0 31.8
Phoenix 60.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 55.0 25.0 50.0 25.0 25.0
Pittsburgh 33.3 33.3 33.3 41.7 58.3 —   41.7 41.7 16.7
Portland, OR area 38.1 19.0 42.9 23.8 52.4 23.8 38.1 28.6 33.3
Raleigh/Durham 50.0 16.7 33.3 50.0 50.0 —   66.7 25.0 8.3
Richmond 11.1 55.6 33.3 33.3 66.7 —   33.3 55.6 11.1
Sacramento 30.0 20.0 50.0 30.0 40.0 30.0 60.0 20.0 20.0
Salt Lake City 90.0 —   10.0 30.0 60.0 10.0 60.0 20.0 20.0
San Diego 29.2 37.5 33.3 16.7 33.3 50.0 20.8 29.2 50.0
San Francisco 15.4 18.5 66.2 3.1 24.6 72.3 10.8 16.9 72.3
San Jose area 34.1 29.3 36.6 —   7.3 92.7 7.3 12.2 80.5
Seattle area 6.1 48.5 45.5 21.2 30.3 48.5 24.2 24.2 51.5
St. Louis 30.0 40.0 30.0 —   80.0 20.0 10.0 60.0 30.0
Tampa/St. Petersburg 41.2 23.5 35.3 17.6 52.9 29.4 35.3 17.6 47.1
Washington, D.C. 32.6 28.9 38.5 10.4 40.0 49.6 16.3 30.4 53.3
Wilmington 35.3 47.1 17.6 47.1 35.3 17.6 58.8 29.4 11.8
States:
Other areas in California 10.0 30.0 60.0 30.0 10.0 60.0 30.0 —   70.0
Other areas in Connecticut 13.3 20.0 66.7 20.0 66.7 13.3 46.7 20.0 33.3
Kentucky 42.9 14.3 42.9 28.6 71.4 —   42.9 57.1 —  
Other areas in New York State 43.8 25.0 31.3 18.8 75.0 6.3 50.0 31.3 18.8
Other areas in Texas 42.9 14.3 42.9 28.6 21.4 50.0 50.0 14.3 35.7
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