Women and Minorities at Law Firms by Race and Ethnicity - New Findings for 2016

NALP Bulletin, February 2017

In a January 2017 Report on Diversity in U.S. Law Firms, NALP noted that women and Black/African-Americans made small gains in representation at major U.S. law firms in 2016 compared with 2015. However, representation of both these groups remains below 2009 levels. Although women and minorities continue to make small gains in their representation among law firm partners in 2016, the overall percentage of women associates has decreased more often than not since 2009, and the percentage of African-American associates has declined every year since 2009, except for a small increase in 2016.

The report provides additional figures to show that aggregate statistics about the representation of women and minority attorneys at law firms do not tell the whole story, and some of those findings, as well as some new findings, are presented here.

For instance, among all employers listed in the 2016-2017 NALP Directory of Legal Employers, just 8.05% of partners were minorities and 2.76% of partners were minority women. Moreover, many offices report no minority partners at all. And notably, although the most recent information shows that minority representation among associates as a whole has increased for six years in a row after declining from 2009 to 2010, a more detailed look reveals that much of the increase has been and can continue to be attributed to an increase in Asian associates. Meanwhile, representation of Blacks/African-Americans among associates slid every year from 2010 to 2015 and remains below its 2009 level despite a small increase to 4.11% in 2016. Asians account for half of minority associates, and Hispanics have outnumbered Blacks/African-Americans in the associate ranks since 2014.

Of the four categories of lawyers tracked in the directory, minorities in general and minority women specifically are most common by far among associates and non-traditional track/staff attorneys — hereafter referred to as staff attorneys. (The term minorities as used here includes lawyers identified as Black/African-American, Hispanic, Native American, Asian, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, and multi-racial. The very few Native American, Native Hawaiian, and multi-racial lawyers are not reported out separately.) Minorities accounted for 22.72% of associates and over 20% of staff attorneys. Figures for minority women were about 12.4% and 13.1%, respectively. But representation of Black/African-Americans and Black/African-American women specifically among staff attorneys is down from 2015. Representation of Black/African-Americans among staff attorneys fell by three-fifths of a percentage point, whereas figures for Asians and Hispanics were up. In fact, the 2015 figures in turn were down from 2014, when Black/African-Americans accounted for about 6.5% of staff attorneys. A change in the categories effective in 2014 precludes direct comparison with prior years, but a look at the most comparable figures for 2012 and 2013 — combining the "staff attorney" and "other attorney" categories used then — suggests that 2014 was high, at least in this time period. The "counsel" category falls in between the lows for partners and the highs for associates and staff attorneys, but more closely resembles partners in this regard. The racial/ethnic makeup differs quite noticeably across these categories of lawyers. Though Asians are most prevalent across all categories, the degree to which they outnumber other racial/ethnic groups varies, with the largest differences among associates, where Asians outnumber Blacks/African-Americans by almost 3 to 1. Representation of Blacks/African-Americans specifically is highest by far among staff attorneys, at 5.12%, compared with 4.11% of associates and about 1.8% of partners and counsel. Among Hispanics figures range from 5.09% of staff attorneys to over 2% of partners and counsel. (See Table 1.)

Additional information by firm size for partners and associates is shown in Tables 2 and 3. Asians are somewhat more prevalent than either Blacks/African-Americans or Hispanics among partners and associates. Differences are evident depending on the size of the firm. For example, the presence of Hispanic partners and associates generally increases with firm size, whereas among Blacks/African-American partners and associates that progress stalls at firms of 501-700 lawyers. Among associates, Asians account for half of minority associates at the national level, and over half in the largest firms. (See Table 2 and Table 3.)

As might be expected, these figures vary greatly by city. For example, among larger cities — those with 500 or more partners represented in the directory — Black/African-American associates and partners are most common in Atlanta, Detroit, and Washington, DC, while Asian associates and partners are most common in Los Angeles, Orange County, CA, San Francisco, and the San Jose area. Hispanics dominate the minority presence in Miami.

Additional insight on women and minorities at law firms comes from looking at the extent to which women and minorities are represented at each office, rather than for a city or for the nation as a whole. Thus, the fact that 8.05% of partners as a whole are minorities does not mean that minorities make up 8.05% of partners at each of the almost 1,100 offices and firms represented in the directory. In fact, over 18% of offices reported no minority partners, and almost 45% reported no minority women partners. Likewise, almost 10% of offices/firms have no minority associates, and almost one in five reported no minority women associates. Offices in firms of 701+ lawyers fare better on these measures at 6.0% and 15.6%, respectively. Just 27.6% of offices reported that more than half of associates were women. (See Table 4 and Table 5.) Notably, the percentage of offices with no minority partners decreased by more than one percentage point, and the percentages of offices with no minority associates or no minority women associates were down by 2 and 3 percentage points, respectively. Also, compared with the 51.3% of offices where fewer than 45% of associates were women in 2015, the figure for 2016 was lower. That is, the percentage of offices where fewer than 45% of associates were women decreased in 2016 compared with 2015. This is in contrast to 2015 compared with 2014, when these percentages moved in the opposite direction — that is, the prevalence of less representation of women and minorities among associates increased. For example, the percentage of offices with no minority associates increased from 10% in 2014 to 11.7% in 2015.

The source for Tables 1-5 is the 2016-2017 NALP Directory of Legal Employers. The January 2017 Report on Diversity in U.S. Law Firms can be found here (PDF).

 

Table 1. Women and Minorities at Law Firms in 2016 — Nationwide by Type of Attorney

  TOTAL # OVERALL ASIAN BLACK/AFRICAN-AMERICAN HISPANIC
% Minority % Minority Women Total % % Women Total % % Women Total % % Women
Partners 50,909 8.05% 2.76% 3.13% 1.17% 1.81% 0.64% 2.31% 0.68%
Associates 45,398 22.72 12.42 11.25 6.35 4.11 2.32 4.42 2.15
Counsel 12,200 9.99 4.65 4.49 2.18 1.79 0.84 2.51 1.11
Non-traditional Track/Staff Attorneys 3,968 20.61 13.05 8.34 5.44 5.12 3.50 5.09 2.87

Figures are based on 1,082 offices/firms covering a total of 112,475 lawyers.

 

Table 2. Partner Demographics at Law Firms — 2016

  ALL PARTNERS PARTNERS BY RACE OR ETHNICITY # of Offices
Total # % Minority % Minority Women ASIAN BLACK/AFRICAN-
AMERICAN
HISPANIC
Total % % Women Total % % Women Total % % Women
Total 50,909 8.05% 2.76% 3.13% 1.17% 1.81% 0.64% 2.31% 0.68% 1,082
By # of Lawyers Firm-wide:
100 or fewer lawyers 3,471 6.68 2.42 3.28 1.35 1.04 0.26 1.09 0.46 114
101-250 lawyers 9,516 6.20 2.04 2.22 0.81 1.41 0.47 1.87 0.54 145
251-500 lawyers 11,162 7.40 2.65 2.53 1.03 1.88 0.74 2.17 0.63 214
501-700 lawyers 6,283 8.21 2.75 2.82 0.99 2.02 0.67 2.66 0.78 121
701+ lawyers 20,477 9.44 3.22 3.96 1.45 2.03 0.71 2.69 0.79 488
Offices in:
Atlanta 1,149 8.01 2.35 1.83 0.26 4.26 1.31 1.22 0.44 24
Austin 331 11.48 4.83 1.21 0.30 3.93 1.81 6.04 2.72 18
Boston area 1,610 4.53 1.68 2.30 1.12 0.99 0.25 1.12 0.31 33
Charlotte 455 6.15 1.54 1.10 0.22 3.30 1.10 1.32 0.22 14
Chicago 3,413 7.00 2.34 3.08 1.14 1.96 0.73 1.58 0.29 55
Cincinnati 336 3.27 1.19 1.19 0.30 0.60 0.00 0.89 0.89 9
Cleveland 496 3.83 0.81 1.21 0.20 1.41 0.40 1.01 0.20 8
Columbus 419 5.97 1.67 0.95 0.48 3.10 0.72 0.72 0.24 12
Dallas 1,024 8.30 2.83 1.46 0.49 1.66 0.68 3.52 1.07 32
Denver 638 5.49 1.88 1.72 0.63 0.16 0.00 2.35 0.31 24
Detroit area 553 5.79 2.35 1.63 0.72 2.89 1.45 0.90 0.00 9
Ft. Lauderdale/W. Palm Beach 186 4.84 2.69 0.00 0.00 2.15 1.61 2.69 1.08 9
Grand Rapids 263 2.28 0.76 0.76 0.38 0.00 0.00 1.52 0.38 6
Houston 1,040 10.87 3.46 2.69 1.06 2.60 1.06 4.62 1.06 39
Indianapolis 343 2.92 1.17 0.58 0.29 0.87 0.00 1.17 0.58 7
Kansas City 439 4.10 1.14 0.91 0.46 2.05 0.00 0.68 0.23 6
Los Angeles area 2,042 15.18 5.53 8.23 3.48 1.91 0.59 3.53 1.18 77
Miami 576 31.08 9.03 0.52 0.35 2.78 0.87 27.26 7.47 17
Milwaukee 632 3.48 1.58 0.79 0.47 0.47 0.00 1.42 0.79 7
Minneapolis 1,132 3.53 1.59 1.06 0.80 0.35 0.18 0.97 0.09 19
New York City 6,340 8.45 2.73 3.96 1.34 1.47 0.50 2.41 0.63 102
Northern NJ/Newark area 505 4.75 1.78 1.78 0.79 0.99 0.40 0.99 0.20 10
Northern Virginia 193 8.29 1.55 5.18 1.04 1.04 0.00 1.55 0.52 9
Orange Co., CA 524 13.74 4.39 8.02 2.86 0.76 0.19 3.63 0.95 20
Philadelphia 722 3.88 1.66 1.25 0.55 1.39 0.69 0.28 0.00 12
Phoenix 560 6.25 1.61 1.25 0.54 0.36 0.00 2.14 0.54 13
Pittsburgh 564 3.72 1.60 1.60 0.71 0.35 0.00 1.06 0.53 7
Portland, OR area 437 5.95 2.97 1.60 0.92 1.14 0.69 1.83 0.92 11
Salt Lake City 180 5.00 1.11 1.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.78 1.11 8
San Diego 272 12.50 2.94 5.15 1.84 0.37 0.00 4.78 0.74 16
San Francisco 1,362 13.44 4.63 7.86 2.64 2.28 0.51 2.35 1.10 51
San Jose area 792 17.30 5.56 12.37 4.04 1.01 0.25 3.16 1.14 40
Seattle area 895 9.27 3.35 5.47 2.12 1.34 0.45 1.45 0.45 23
St. Louis 766 4.31 1.57 0.52 0.13 2.09 0.65 1.17 0.65 11
Washington, DC 4,809 9.07 3.39 3.85 1.31 2.56 1.04 1.89 0.71 100
Wilmington 263 4.18 1.52 1.52 0.76 1.52 0.76 0.76 0.00 12

Source: The 2016-2017 NALP Directory of Legal Employers. The few Native American, Native Hawaiian, and multi-racial lawyers reported are included in the overall minority percentages but are not reported separately. Some city information includes one or more offices in adjacent suburbs. Orange County includes offices in Costa Mesa, Irvine, and Newport Beach. The San Jose area includes offices in Menlo Park, Mountain View, Palo Alto and E. Palo Alto, Redwood Shores/Redwood City, and San Jose. The Los Angeles area includes offices in Santa Monica and Long Beach. The Northern New Jersey/Newark area includes offices in Newark, Roseland, Florham Park, Hackensack, Morristown, and Westfield. Northern Virginia includes offices in Alexandria, McLean/Tyson’s Corner, and Reston.

 

Table 3. Associate Demographics at Law Firms — 2016

  ALL ASSOCIATES ASSOCIATES BY RACE OR ETHNICITY # of Offices
Total # % Minority % Minority Women ASIAN BLACK/AFRICAN-
AMERICAN
HISPANIC
Total % % Women Total % % Women Total % % Women
Total 45,398 22.72% 12.42% 11.25% 6.35% 4.11% 2.32% 4.42% 2.15% 1,082
By # of Lawyers Firm-wide:
100 or fewer lawyers 1,818 17.05 8.80 9.90 5.45 2.75 1.21 2.31 1.27 114
101-250 lawyers 5,446 16.43 9.02 7.33 4.30 3.53 1.98 3.65 1.67 145
251-500 lawyers 7,672 21.64 11.78 9.80 5.70 4.50 2.54 4.35 2.10 214
501-700 lawyers 5,657 22.22 11.51 9.93 5.14 4.47 2.53 4.76 2.26 121
701+ lawyers 24,805 24.96 13.84 12.95 7.34 4.13 2.36 4.68 2.32 488
Offices in:
Atlanta 852 19.48 10.92 7.28 3.40 7.98 5.16 2.00 1.17 24
Austin 219 21.92 10.96 7.31 3.20 2.28 1.37 5.48 2.28 18
Boston area 1,814 16.76 10.53 9.10 5.68 2.54 1.54 3.47 2.04 33
Charlotte 302 13.91 4.97 3.31 1.32 4.97 2.32 2.32 0.33 14
Chicago 2,533 20.37 11.21 9.44 5.33 4.54 2.21 3.67 2.13 55
Cincinnati 147 16.33 7.48 4.76 2.04 6.12 2.72 2.72 1.36 9
Cleveland 322 6.83 4.04 2.48 1.86 3.42 1.55 0.93 0.62 8
Columbus 229 12.66 6.11 3.49 1.31 4.80 2.18 2.18 0.87 12
Dallas 957 21.00 7.94 7.52 1.88 3.45 1.88 5.96 2.30 32
Denver 468 13.89 7.91 4.27 2.99 1.50 1.07 4.49 1.92 24
Detroit area 230 16.96 8.70 2.17 0.00 9.57 5.65 0.87 0.43 9
Ft. Lauderdale/W. Palm Beach 109 15.60 9.17 5.50 1.83 3.67 2.75 5.50 3.67 9
Grand Rapids 74 12.16 6.76 4.05 2.70 2.70 1.35 5.41 2.70 6
Houston 1,110 21.53 10.99 8.92 3.69 4.14 2.52 5.86 3.15 39
Indianapolis 140 10.00 5.00 2.14 0.71 4.29 2.86 2.86 1.43 7
Kansas City 244 17.21 9.43 2.87 1.64 4.51 2.87 4.92 2.46 6
Los Angeles area 2,282 31.33 17.57 17.62 10.43 3.24 1.84 5.78 2.89 77
Miami 342 44.15 23.10 2.05 1.46 5.56 2.34 34.50 18.42 17
Milwaukee 313 8.95 4.47 2.88 1.28 1.92 0.96 3.83 1.92 7
Minneapolis 566 12.37 6.18 5.30 2.83 2.65 1.24 1.77 1.41 19
New York City 11,387 26.74 15.19 14.63 8.68 4.23 2.34 4.99 2.43 102
Northern NJ/Newark area 410 18.29 10.00 8.78 5.37 2.44 1.22 5.12 2.20 10
Northern Virginia 187 25.13 9.09 15.51 4.81 2.67 1.07 4.28 2.14 9
Orange Co., CA 520 28.85 12.88 19.81 9.81 0.77 0.58 4.23 0.96 20
Philadelphia 646 12.85 6.19 4.49 2.32 4.33 2.32 2.01 0.46 12
Phoenix 255 14.12 6.27 4.31 2.35 1.57 0.39 5.10 2.35 13
Pittsburgh 369 14.09 7.86 6.23 3.52 4.88 2.44 2.17 1.08 7
Portland, OR area 203 14.29 7.39 4.43 2.46 0.99 0.49 2.46 0.99 11
Salt Lake City 123 8.13 3.25 1.63 1.63 0.81 0.81 2.44 0.81 8
San Diego 321 26.79 13.08 14.95 7.17 1.56 1.25 4.67 1.87 16
San Francisco 1,531 30.57 17.18 18.62 11.23 2.48 1.18 5.81 2.48 51
San Jose area 1,388 40.63 20.46 30.40 15.92 2.67 0.94 3.89 1.95 40
Seattle area 511 22.11 12.72 11.74 8.02 2.74 1.17 3.33 1.37 23
St. Louis 400 12.25 6.00 3.00 1.50 5.00 3.00 2.25 0.75 11
Washington, DC 5,006 22.31 12.37 10.45 5.65 5.69 3.58 3.54 1.72 100
Wilmington 257 12.06 6.23 4.67 3.50 2.33 0.78 3.11 1.56 12

Source: The 2016-2017 NALP Directory of Legal Employers. The few Native American, Native Hawaiian, and multi-racial lawyers reported are included in the overall minority percentages but are not reported separately. Some city information includes one or more offices in adjacent suburbs. Orange County includes offices in Costa Mesa, Irvine, and Newport Beach. The San Jose area includes offices in Menlo Park, Mountain View, Palo Alto and E. Palo Alto, Redwood Shores/Redwood City, and San Jose. The Los Angeles area includes offices in Santa Monica and Long Beach. The Northern New Jersey/Newark area includes offices in Newark, Roseland, Florham Park, Hackensack, Morristown, and Westfield. Northern Virginia includes offices in Alexandria, McLean/Tyson’s Corner, and Reston.

 

Table 4. Representation of Women and Minorities Among Law Firm Partners — 2016
(percent of offices in each range of representation)

  WOMEN MINORITIES MINORITY WOMEN
None Up to 22% More than 22% None Up to 8% More than 8% None Up to 3% More than 3%
Total 5.1% 49.2% 45.7% 18.4% 38.0% 43.6% 44.6% 20.3% 35.0%
By Size of Firm:
100 or fewer lawyers 2.6 49.1 48.2 23.7 50.0 26.3 54.4 20.2 25.4
101-250 lawyers 3.4 53.8 42.8 11.0 57.9 31.0 37.9 37.2 24.8
251-500 lawyers 3.3 47.2 49.5 23.8 34.1 42.1 45.3 22.0 32.7
501-700 lawyers 5.8 48.8 45.5 15.7 37.2 47.1 43.0 19.8 37.2
701+ lawyers 6.8 48.8 44.5 17.6 31.1 51.2 44.5 14.8 40.8
Offices in:
Atlanta 0.0 62.5 37.5 4.2 50.0 45.8 37.5 33.3 29.2
Austin 22.2 27.8 50.0 38.9 11.1 50.0 55.6 11.1 33.3
Boston area 12.1 36.4 51.5 18.2 69.7 12.1 54.5 33.3 12.1
Charlotte 7.1 64.3 28.6 28.6 42.9 28.6 71.4 14.3 14.3
Chicago 1.8 52.7 45.5 5.5 61.8 32.7 36.4 36.4 27.3
Cincinnati 22.2 22.2 55.6 55.6 33.3 11.1 66.7 22.2 11.1
Cleveland 0.0 75.0 25.0 0.0 75.0 25.0 50.0 50.0 0.0
Columbus 0.0 58.3 41.7 25.0 33.3 41.7 58.3 8.3 33.3
Dallas 3.1 59.4 37.5 9.4 37.5 53.1 40.6 18.8 40.6
Denver 8.3 37.5 54.2 50.0 33.3 16.7 70.8 8.3 20.8
Detroit area 11.1 33.3 55.6 11.1 55.6 33.3 33.3 22.2 44.4
Ft. Lauderdale/W. Palm Beach 22.2 22.2 55.6 44.4 33.3 22.2 66.7 0.0 33.3
Grand Rapids 16.7 83.3 0.0 50.0 50.0 0.0 83.3 16.7 0.0
Houston 12.8 56.4 30.8 20.5 17.9 61.5 48.7 5.1 46.2
Indianapolis 0.0 42.9 57.1 14.3 71.4 14.3 42.9 42.9 14.3
Kansas City 0.0 33.3 66.7 0.0 100.0 0.0 16.7 66.7 16.7
Los Angeles area 1.3 51.9 46.8 9.1 16.9 74.0 35.1 2.6 62.3
Miami 0.0 23.5 76.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 11.8 0.0 88.2
Milwaukee 0.0 42.9 57.1 0.0 100.0 0.0 28.6 57.1 14.3
Minneapolis 0.0 36.8 63.2 26.3 63.2 10.5 42.1 47.4 10.5
New York City 1.0 71.6 27.5 6.9 48.0 45.1 30.4 35.3 34.3
Northern NJ/Newark area 10.0 60.0 30.0 20.0 80.0 0.0 40.0 30.0 30.0
Northern Virginia 22.2 55.6 22.2 22.2 33.3 44.4 66.7 0.0 33.3
Orange Co., CA 10.0 55.0 35.0 15.0 10.0 75.0 55.0 0.0 45.0
Philadelphia 0.0 66.7 33.3 16.7 58.3 25.0 58.3 25.0 16.7
Phoenix 0.0 38.5 61.5 7.7 61.5 30.8 53.8 23.1 23.1
Pittsburgh 0.0 42.9 57.1 28.6 57.1 14.3 42.9 28.6 28.6
Portland, OR area 9.1 27.3 63.6 18.2 54.5 27.3 27.3 36.4 36.4
Salt Lake City 12.5 62.5 25.0 25.0 50.0 25.0 75.0 12.5 12.5
San Diego 0.0 43.8 56.3 12.5 31.3 56.3 62.5 0.0 37.5
San Francisco 2.0 37.3 60.8 15.7 9.8 74.5 35.3 7.8 56.9
San Jose area 10.0 52.5 37.5 5.0 7.5 87.5 32.5 0.0 67.5
Seattle area 4.3 26.1 69.6 13.0 21.7 65.2 52.2 17.4 30.4
St. Louis 0.0 36.4 63.6 18.2 72.7 9.1 45.5 45.5 9.1
Washington, DC 5.0 49.0 46.0 12.0 36.0 52.0 31.0 22.0 47.0
Wilmington 0.0 50.0 50.0 41.7 41.7 16.7 75.0 16.7 8.3

 

Table 5. Representation of Women and Minorities Among Law Firm Associates — 2016
(percent of offices in each range of representation)

  WOMEN MINORITIES MINORITY WOMEN
Less than 45% 45-50% More than 50% None Up to 23% More than 23% None Up to 12.5% More than 12.5%
Total 48.9% 23.5% 27.6% 9.8% 49.4% 40.8% 19.8% 40.7% 39.5%
By Size of Firm:
100 or fewer lawyers 57.9 21.9 20.2 21.9 55.3 22.8 36.0 39.5 24.6
101-250 lawyers 53.1 21.7 25.2 10.5 65.0 24.5 18.9 52.4 28.7
251-500 lawyers 45.3 26.2 28.5 11.2 46.3 42.5 22.9 41.1 36.0
501-700 lawyers 45.0 26.7 28.3 10.0 49.2 40.8 16.7 42.5 40.8
701+ lawyers 48.1 22.4 29.5 6.0 44.8 49.2 15.6 36.9 47.5
Offices in:
Atlanta 41.7 25.0 33.3 0.0 75.0 25.0 12.5 54.2 33.3
Austin 58.8 11.8 29.4 23.5 35.3 41.2 47.1 17.6 35.3
Boston area 34.4 31.3 34.4 6.3 71.9 21.9 12.5 46.9 40.6
Charlotte 71.4 14.3 14.3 7.1 64.3 28.6 42.9 50.0 7.1
Chicago 47.3 20.0 32.7 7.3 56.4 36.4 14.5 49.1 36.4
Cincinnati 100.0 0.0 0.0 11.1 66.7 22.2 44.4 44.4 11.1
Cleveland 75.0 25.0 0.0 12.5 87.5 0.0 37.5 50.0 12.5
Columbus 41.7 41.7 16.7 8.3 75.0 16.7 33.3 58.3 8.3
Dallas 78.1 12.5 9.4 6.3 59.4 34.4 25.0 59.4 15.6
Denver 41.7 33.3 25.0 16.7 62.5 20.8 29.2 45.8 25.0
Detroit area 33.3 66.7 0.0 11.1 55.6 33.3 33.3 44.4 22.2
Ft. Lauderdale/W. Palm Beach 55.6 11.1 33.3 22.2 33.3 44.4 33.3 33.3 33.3
Grand Rapids 50.0 33.3 16.7 16.7 83.3 0.0 33.3 50.0 16.7
Houston 57.9 23.7 18.4 7.9 55.3 36.8 18.4 50.0 31.6
Indianapolis 28.6 14.3 57.1 14.3 85.7 0.0 28.6 71.4 0.0
Kansas City 66.7 16.7 16.7 16.7 83.3 0.0 16.7 66.7 16.7
Los Angeles area 44.7 19.7 35.5 1.3 25.0 73.7 5.3 25.0 69.7
Miami 41.2 5.9 52.9 0.0 5.9 94.1 5.9 11.8 82.4
Milwaukee 57.1 28.6 14.3 14.3 85.7 0.0 28.6 71.4 0.0
Minneapolis 57.9 31.6 10.5 15.8 73.7 10.5 36.8 52.6 10.5
New York City 41.2 32.4 26.5 0.0 41.2 58.8 1.0 37.3 61.8
Northern NJ/Newark area 40.0 30.0 30.0 0.0 80.0 20.0 10.0 50.0 40.0
Northern Virginia 66.7 0.0 33.3 0.0 44.4 55.6 22.2 66.7 11.1
Orange Co., CA 55.0 25.0 20.0 5.0 20.0 75.0 15.0 35.0 50.0
Philadelphia 41.7 25.0 33.3 16.7 75.0 8.3 33.3 58.3 8.3
Phoenix 84.6 0.0 15.4 15.4 69.2 15.4 30.8 53.8 15.4
Pittsburgh 42.9 28.6 28.6 14.3 57.1 28.6 14.3 57.1 28.6
Portland, OR area 45.5 18.2 36.4 27.3 63.6 9.1 27.3 54.5 18.2
Salt Lake City 100.0 0.0 0.0 28.6 71.4 0.0 57.1 42.9 0.0
San Diego 56.3 37.5 6.3 18.8 25.0 56.3 18.8 25.0 56.3
San Francisco 23.5 21.6 54.9 2.0 13.7 84.3 11.8 15.7 72.5
San Jose area 55.0 17.5 27.5 0.0 12.5 87.5 5.0 15.0 80.0
Seattle area 65.2 8.7 26.1 8.7 56.5 34.8 30.4 30.4 39.1
St. Louis 72.7 9.1 18.2 27.3 54.5 18.2 27.3 54.5 18.2
Washington, DC 44.4 27.3 28.3 2.0 54.5 43.4 4.0 50.5 45.5
Wilmington 66.7 8.3 25.0 25.0 66.7 8.3 41.7 33.3 25.0
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