Clerkship Study Tables 1-8

Courting Clerkships:
The NALP Judicial Clerkship Study

Table 1. Law School Classes 1994-98 — Demographic Characteristics
Table 2. Racial/Ethnicity Distribution of Judicial Clerkships by Level of Clerkship: 1994-1998
Table 3. Racial/Ethnic Distribution of Federal Clerks by Circuit: 1994-1998
Table 4. Gender Distribution of Judicial Clerkships by Level of Clerkship: 1994-1998
Table 5. Initial Employer Types — Men and Women: Class of 1998
Table 6. Gender Distribution of Federal Clerkships by Circuit: 1994-1998
Table 7. Judicial Clerkships Taken by Level of Clerkship in Public and Private Schools: 1994-1998
Table 8. Judicial Clerkships Taken by Level of Clerkship and by Size of School: 1994-1998



Table 1. Law School Classes 1994-98 — Demographic Characteristics

Graduating Class

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Class Size

39,305

39,199

39,920

40,114

39,452

% Native American

0.6%

0.6%

0.7%

0.7%

0.8%

% Asian/Pacific Islander

4.5

5.1

5.3

5.9

6.1

% African-American

6.0

6.9

6.9

7.0

7.5

% Hispanic

4.4

4.8

5.0

5.4

5.3

     Total % Minority

15.5

17.4

17.9

19.0

19.7

% Caucasian

84.5

82.6

82.1

81.0

80.3

% Women

42.6

42.7

43.5

43.7

44.8

Source: American Bar Association, Section of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar.

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Table 2. Racial/Ethnicity Distribution of Judicial Clerkships by Level of Clerkship: 1994-1998

Type of
Clerkship

Race or
Ethnicity

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

All Clerks

American Indian

4

0.1%

15

0.5%

10

0.3%

8

0.2%

19

0.6%

Asian/P. Islander

130

4.3%

166

5.3%

146

4.5%

161

5.0%

191

5.6%

African American

171

5.7%

180

5.8%

190

5.9%

181

5.6%

204

6.0%

White

2,622

87.1%

2,667

85.6%

2,783

86.3%

2,787

85.9%

2,918

85.1%

Hispanic

83

2.8%

87

2.8%

95

2.9%

108

3.3%

95

2.8%

TOTAL

3,010

100.0%

3,115

100.0%

3,224

100.0%

3,245

100.0%

3,427

100.0%

Federal clerks

American Indian

3

0.2%

4

0.3%

5

0.4%

2

0.2%

5

0.4%

Asian/P. Islander

62

5.0%

81

6.4%

61

4.9%

74

5.9%

90

6.9%

African American

61

4.9%

70

5.5%

66

5.3%

61

4.9%

63

4.9%

White

1,089

87.3%

1,065

84.3%

1,073

86.1%

1,067

85.4%

1,106

85.3%

Hispanic

33

2.6%

43

3.4%

41

3.3%

46

3.7%

32

2.5%

TOTAL

1,248

100.0%

1,263

100.0%

1,246

100.0%

1,250

100.0%

1,296

100.0%

Local clerks

American Indian

2

1.2%

1

0.4%

Asian/P. Islander

8

4.1%

10

5.8%

5

2.0%

13

4.7%

10

4.0%

African American

17

8.8%

17

9.8%

22

8.6%

26

9.4%

17

6.8%

White

162

83.9%

136

78.6%

221

86.3%

232

83.5%

216

86.1%

Hispanic

6

3.1%

8

4.6%

7

2.7%

7

2.5%

8

3.2%

TOTAL

193

100.0%

173

100.0%

256

100.0%

278

100.0%

251

100.0%

State clerks

American Indian

1

0.1%

8

0.5%

4

0.2%

6

0.4%

12

0.6%

Asian/P. Islander

60

3.9%

74

4.5%

80

4.7%

72

4.2%

90

4.8%

African American

87

5.6%

90

5.4%

101

5.9%

94

5.5%

124

6.7%

White

1,353

87.6%

1,448

87.5%

1,478

86.5%

1,475

86.7%

1,579

85.0%

Hispanic

44

2.8%

35

2.1%

46

2.7%

55

3.2%

53

2.9%

TOTAL

1,545

100.0%

1,655

100.0%

1,709

100.0%

1,702

100.0%

1,858

100.0%

Note: Excludes graduates for whom race or ethnicity was not reported.
Source: National Association for Law Placement, employment data for the Classes of 1994-98.

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Table 3. Racial/Ethnic Distribution of Federal Clerks by Circuit: 1994-1998

Circuit

Race or Ethnicity

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

First

Asian/P. Islander

2

4.3%

1

2.2%

5

9.1%

4

5.9%

2

3.9%

African American

1

2.1%

2

4.4%

2

3.6%

2

2.9%

2

3.9%

White

42

89.4%

41

91.1%

47

85.5%

57

83.8%

47

92.2%

Hispanic

2

4.3%

1

2.2%

1

1.8%

5

7.4%

TOTAL

47

100.0%

45

100.0%

55

100.0%

68

100.0%

51

100.0%

Second

American Indian

1

0.7%

Asian/P. Islander

6

4.3%

11

7.8%

10

8.1%

6

4.6%

12

7.4%

African American

4

2.9%

7

5.0%

8

6.5%

6

4.6%

10

6.1%

White

128

92.1%

121

85.8%

101

81.5%

114

87.7%

134

82.2%

Hispanic

2

1.4%

5

4.0%

4

3.1%

7

4.3%

TOTAL

139

100.0%

141

100.0%

124

100.0%

130

100.0%

163

100.0%

Third

Asian/P. Islander

6

5.7%

7

6.0%

4

3.9%

3

3.1%

4

4.1%

African American

5

4.8%

5

4.3%

6

5.8%

10

10.3%

10

10.2%

White

88

83.8%

97

83.6%

92

89.3%

81

83.5%

83

84.7%

Hispanic

6

5.7%

7

6.0%

1

1.0%

3

3.1%

1

1.0%

TOTAL

105

100.0%

116

100.0%

103

100.0%

97

100.0%

98

100.0%

Fourth

American Indian

1

0.8%

Asian/P. Islander

4

2.9%

4

3.2%

2

1.6%

2

1.9%

8

6.8%

African American

6

4.4%

8

6.5%

11

8.7%

5

4.8%

5

4.2%

White

127

92.7%

109

87.9%

113

89.0%

96

91.4%

103

87.3%

Hispanic

2

1.6%

1

0.8%

2

1.9%

2

1.7%

TOTAL

137

100.0%

124

100.0%

127

100.0%

105

100.0%

118

100.0%

Fifth

American Indian

3

2.3%

2

1.4%

Asian/P. Islander

5

4.1%

7

5.3%

3

2.2%

5

3.9%

7

5.3%

African American

4

3.3%

4

3.1%

5

3.6%

8

6.3%

3

2.3%

White

105

86.1%

109

83.2%

120

86.3%

105

82.7%

116

87.2%

Hispanic

8

6.6%

8

6.1%

9

6.5%

9

7.1%

7

5.3%

TOTAL

122

100.0%

131

100.0%

139

100.0%

127

100.0%

133

100.0%

Sixth

American Indian

1

1.1%

Asian/P. Islander

3

3.7%

4

4.3%

3

3.4%

2

2.1%

2

1.8%

African American

8

9.9%

11

12.0%

5

5.6%

14

14.7%

9

8.2%

White

69

85.2%

75

81.5%

78

87.6%

77

81.1%

99

90.0%

Hispanic

1

1.2%

2

2.2%

2

2.2%

2

2.1%

TOTAL

81

100.0%

92

100.0%

89

100.0%

95

100.0%

110

100.0%

Seventh

Asian/P. Islander

3

4.2%

2

2.9%

3

3.9%

7

10.1%

African American

2

2.8%

1

1.3%

5

7.4%

1

1.3%

4

5.8%

White

65

91.5%

69

92.0%

59

86.8%

69

90.8%

56

81.2%

Hispanic

1

1.4%

5

6.7%

2

2.9%

3

3.9%

2

2.9%

TOTAL

71

100.0%

75

100.0%

68

100.0%

76

100.0%

69

100.0%

Eighth

American Indian

1

1.3%

1

1.4%

Asian/P. Islander

4

5.6%

2

2.6%

5

6.8%

6

7.7%

African American

6

9.0%

4

5.6%

3

3.8%

2

2.7%

1

1.3%

White

61

91.0%

63

87.5%

72

92.3%

66

89.2%

70

89.7%

Hispanic

1

1.4%

1

1.3%

TOTAL

67

100.0%

72

100.0%

78

100.0%

74

100.0%

78

100.0%

Ninth

American Indian

1

0.5%

1

0.5%

1

0.5%

Asian/P. Islander

25

12.4%

28

13.3%

23

10.7%

30

14.0%

24

12.2%

African American

7

3.5%

8

3.8%

11

5.1%

3

1.4%

6

3.0%

White

160

79.2%

170

80.6%

166

77.2%

170

79.4%

159

80.7%

Hispanic

9

4.5%

5

2.4%

14

6.5%

11

5.1%

7

3.6%

TOTAL

202

100.0%

211

100.0%

215

100.0%

214

100.0%

197

100.0%

Tenth

American Indian

1

2.8%

2

4.2%

Asian/P. Islander

3

7.7%

4

8.3%

African American

2

5.6%

2

5.1%

2

4.9%

1

2.1%

White

33

91.7%

32

82.1%

43

93.5%

37

90.2%

40

83.3%

Hispanic

2

5.1%

3

6.5%

2

4.9%

1

2.1%

TOTAL

36

100.0%

39

100.0%

46

100.0%

41

100.0%

48

100.0%

Eleventh

Asian/P. Islander

5

4.4%

1

1.1%

3

2.9%

6

5.1%

7

6.5%

African American

8

7.1%

9

9.6%

8

7.8%

4

3.4%

2

1.9%

White

97

85.8%

80

85.1%

90

87.4%

103

88.0%

97

89.8%

Hispanic

3

2.7%

4

4.3%

2

1.9%

4

3.4%

2

1.9%

TOTAL

113

100.0%

94

100.0%

103

100.0%

117

100.0%

108

100.0%

DC

American Indian

2

2.0%

Asian/P. Islander

2

2.1%

6

6.5%

2

2.6%

7

7.4%

6

6.0%

African American

5

5.3%

8

8.7%

2

2.6%

4

4.3%

9

9.0%

White

85

90.4%

75

81.5%

73

93.6%

82

87.2%

83

83.0%

Hispanic

2

2.1%

3

3.3%

1

1.3%

1

1.1%

TOTAL

94

100.0%

92

100.0%

78

100.0%

94

100.0%

100

100.0%

Excludes graduates for whom race/ethnicity was not reported.
Source: National Association for Law Placement, employment data for the Classes of 1994-98.

The First Circuit includes Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Puerto Rico.
The
Second Circuit includes Connecticut, New York, and Vermont.
The
Third Circuit includes Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and the Virgin Islands.
The
Fourth Circuit includes Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia.
The
Fifth Circuit includes Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas.
The
Sixth Circuit includes Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, and Tennessee.
The
Seventh Circuit includes Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin.
The
Eighth Circuit includes Arkansas, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota.
The
Ninth Circuit includes Alaska, Arizona, California, Guam, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Northern Mariana Islands, Oregon, and Washington.
The
Tenth Circuit includes Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Utah, and Wyoming.
The
Eleventh Circuit includes Alabama, Florida, and Georgia.
The
D.C. Circuit includes both the District of Columbia Circuit and the Federal Circuit.

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Table 4. Gender Distribution of Judicial Clerkships by Level of Clerkship: 1994-1998

Type of Clerkship

Gender

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

All Clerks

Women

1,549

49.3%

1,601

48.7%

1,685

50.3%

1,766

51.6%

1,840

51.2%

Men

1,596

50.7%

1,687

51.3%

1,663

49.7%

1,657

48.4%

1,752

48.8%

TOTAL

3,145

100.0%

3,288

100.0%

3,348

100.0%

3,423

100.0%

3,592

100.0%

Federal clerks

Women

589

46.0%

578

43.6%

605

46.3%

611

45.4%

650

47.3%

Men

692

54.0%

748

56.4%

701

53.7%

734

54.6%

724

52.7%

TOTAL

1,281

100.0%

1,326

100.0%

1,306

100.0%

1,345

100.0%

1,374

100.0%

Local clerks

Women

122

59.2%

104

57.1%

144

54.5%

158

54.1%

140

54.1%

Men

84

40.8%

78

42.9%

120

45.5%

134

45.9%

119

45.9%

TOTAL

206

100.0%

182

100.0%

264

100.0%

292

100.0%

259

100.0%

State clerks

Women

821

50.4%

908

51.7%

932

52.8%

987

55.8%

1,037

53.6%

Men

809

49.6%

847

48.3%

833

47.2%

782

44.2%

896

46.4%

TOTAL

1,630

100.0%

1,755

100.0%

1,765

100.0%

1,769

100.0%

1,933

100.0%

Note: Excludes graduates for whom gender was not reported.
Source: National Association for Law Placement, employment data for the Classes of 1994-98.

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Table 5. Initial Employer Types — Men and Women: Class of 1998

Initial Employer Types Men

Initial Employer Types Women

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Table 6. Gender Distribution of Federal Clerkships by Circuit: 1994-1998

Circuit

Gender

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

First

Women

23

47.9%

20

40.0%

30

50.8%

29

41.4%

29

52.7%

Men

25

52.1%

30

60.0%

29

49.2%

41

58.6%

26

47.3%

TOTAL

48

100.0%

50

100.0%

59

100.0%

70

100.0%

55

100.0%

Second

Women

60

42.3%

72

49.0%

61

47.7%

65

46.4%

81

48.2%

Men

82

57.7%

75

51.0%

67

52.3%

75

53.6%

87

51.8%

TOTAL

142

100.0%

147

100.0%

128

100.0%

140

100.0%

168

100.0%

Third

Women

42

37.8%

55

44.0%

61

51.7%

63

52.5%

49

45.8%

Men

69

62.2%

70

56.0%

57

48.3%

57

47.5%

58

54.2%

TOTAL

111

100.0%

125

100.0%

118

100.0%

120

100.0%

107

100.0%

Fourth

Women

69

49.3%

44

33.8%

60

46.5%

53

46.1%

50

41.0%

Men

71

50.7%

86

66.2%

69

53.5%

62

53.9%

72

59.0%

TOTAL

140

100.0%

130

100.0%

129

100.0%

115

100.0%

122

100.0%

Fifth

Women

50

41.0%

51

37.8%

61

42.4%

57

44.2%

56

40.3%

Men

72

59.0%

84

62.2%

83

57.6%

72

55.8%

83

59.7%

TOTAL

122

100.0%

135

100.0%

144

100.0%

129

100.0%

139

100.0%

Sixth

Women

49

59.8%

41

42.7%

45

48.4%

45

44.6%

55

48.7%

Men

33

40.2%

55

57.3%

48

51.6%

56

55.4%

58

51.3%

TOTAL

82

100.0%

96

100.0%

93

100.0%

101

100.0%

113

100.0%

Seventh

Women

30

41.1%

36

45.0%

28

40.6%

27

35.1%

41

58.6%

Men

43

58.9%

44

55.0%

41

59.4%

50

64.9%

29

41.4%

TOTAL

73

100.0%

80

100.0%

69

100.0%

77

100.0%

70

100.0%

Eighth

Women

30

43.5%

33

44.6%

37

47.4%

31

39.7%

41

50.0%

Men

39

56.5%

41

55.4%

41

52.6%

47

60.3%

41

50.0%

TOTAL

69

100.0%

74

100.0%

78

100.0%

78

100.0%

82

100.0%

Ninth

Women

99

47.1%

118

54.4%

104

45.8%

117

51.5%

113

52.8%

Men

111

52.9%

99

45.6%

123

54.2%

110

48.5%

101

47.2%

TOTAL

210

100.0%

217

100.0%

227

100.0%

227

100.0%

214

100.0%

Tenth

Women

21

52.5%

13

31.0%

23

47.9%

18

38.3%

24

45.3%

Men

19

47.5%

29

69.0%

25

52.1%

29

61.7%

29

54.7%

TOTAL

40

100.0%

42

100.0%

48

100.0%

47

100.0%

53

100.0%

Eleventh

Women

59

51.8%

42

42.0%

46

43.4%

56

43.8%

54

46.2%

Men

55

48.2%

58

58.0%

60

56.6%

72

56.3%

63

53.8%

TOTAL

114

100.0%

100

100.0%

106

100.0%

128

100.0%

117

100.0%

DC

Women

40

41.7%

38

39.2%

36

41.9%

44

44.4%

46

42.6%

Men

56

58.3%

59

60.8%

50

58.1%

55

55.6%

62

57.4%

TOTAL

96

100.0%

97

100.0%

86

100.0%

99

100.0%

108

100.0%

Excludes graduates for whom gender was not reported.
Source: National Association for Law Placement, employment data for the Classes of 1994-98.

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Table 7. Judicial Clerkships Taken by Level of Clerkship in Public and Private Schools: 1994-1998

Type of School

Clerkship Type

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Private

Federal clerks

829

43.8%

821

42.5%

825

43.1%

891

44.6%

900

43.6%

Local clerks

112

5.9%

95

4.9%

147

7.7%

167

8.4%

126

6.1%

State clerks

934

49.3%

992

51.4%

933

48.7%

916

45.8%

1,020

49.4%

Level other or not rept

18

1.0%

23

1.2%

10

0.5%

25

1.3%

20

1.0%

TOTAL

1,893

100.0%

1,931

100.0%

1,915

100.0%

1,999

100.0%

2,066

100.0%

Public

Federal clerks

495

37.3%

512

37.4%

481

33.5%

472

31.6%

480

31.3%

Local clerks

95

7.2%

87

6.4%

118

8.2%

128

8.6%

133

8.7%

State clerks

727

54.7%

768

56.1%

833

58.0%

887

59.5%

913

59.6%

Level other or not rept

11

0.8%

2

0.1%

3

0.2%

5

0.3%

6

0.4%

TOTAL

1,328

100.0%

1,369

100.0%

1,435

100.0%

1,492

100.0%

1,532

100.0%

Source: National Association for Law Placement, employment data for the Classes of 1994-98.

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Table 8. Judicial Clerkships Taken by Level of Clerkship and by Size of School: 1994-1998

Size of School

Clerkship Type

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

500 or fewer

Federal clerks

176

28.6%

155

26.3%

166

25.2%

170

25.0%

173

23.9%

Local clerks

65

10.6%

61

10.3%

87

13.2%

95

14.0%

79

10.9%

State clerks

365

59.3%

374

63.4%

405

61.4%

413

60.8%

469

64.8%

Other or not rept

9

1.5%

2

0.3%

1

0.1%

3

0.4%

TOTAL

615

100.0%

590

100.0%

660

100.0%

679

100.0%

724

100.0%

501-750

Federal clerks

479

43.1%

505

43.3%

525

44.6%

554

43.1%

583

43.4%

Local clerks

38

3.4%

50

4.3%

94

8.0%

77

6.0%

95

7.1%

State clerks

585

52.7%

607

52.1%

555

47.2%

647

50.3%

654

48.7%

Other or not rept

9

0.8%

4

0.3%

3

0.3%

8

0.6%

10

0.7%

TOTAL

1,111

100.0%

1,166

100.0%

1,177

100.0%

1,286

100.0%

1,342

100.0%

More than 750

Federal clerks

669

44.7%

673

43.6%

615

40.6%

639

41.9%

624

40.7%

Local clerks

104

7.0%

71

4.6%

84

5.6%

123

8.1%

85

5.5%

State clerks

711

47.6%

779

50.5%

806

53.3%

743

48.7%

810

52.9%

Other or not rept

11

0.7%

21

1.4%

8

0.5%

21

1.4%

13

0.8%

TOTAL

1,495

100.0%

1,544

100.0%

1,513

100.0%

1,526

100.0%

1,532

100.0%

Source: National Association for Law Placement, employment data for the Classes of 1994-98.

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