Women and Minorities Maintain Representation Among Equity Partners, Broad Disparities Remain

NALP Bulletin, March 2016

Equity partners in multi-tier law firms continue to be disproportionately white men. New figures from NALP show that in 2015, only 17.4% of equity partners were women and only 5.6% were racial/ethnic minorities.

NALP’s findings on women equity partners continue to mirror those of the National Association of Women Lawyers (NAWL), which in its most recent report found that women comprised about 18% of the equity partnership in 2015.

NALP has been compiling its information since 2011, when NALP began asking law firms to report demographic information for equity and non-equity partners through the NALP Directory of Legal Employers. As has been the case since 2011, there is a definite skew among women and minority lawyers who are partners toward non-equity status. Partners in general continue to be disproportionately both male and white (about 74% white and male in 2015), and in multi-tiered firms the skew toward white and male among equity partners appears to be even greater.

Although this equity/non-equity partnership data remains relatively new compared to over two decades of information compiled on the demographics of partners and associates at law firms, this information is now in its fifth year and provides an increasingly stable data set from which to be able to say something meaningful about the ranks of equity and non-equity partners as to race and gender. Although many firms with multi-tier partnerships did not provide equity/non-equity partner demographics in 2015, many did, accounting for almost 22,500 partners, or about 61% of the partners in the NALP Directory with multi-tier partnerships. Tables 1-3 provide several perspectives on the findings for 2015 with comparative figures for the prior four years.

  • Based on those offices that provided information, 61.8% of male partners were equity partners as of February 2015, while somewhat less than half, about 46%, of both women partners and minority partners were equity partners, a differential of about 16 percentage points. See Table 1.

  • More dramatically perhaps, among equity partners, 82.6% were men, 17.4% were women, and 5.6% were racial/ethnic minorities. (The minority figures include both men and women, so the three figures add to more than 100 %.) Among non-equity partners, the respective figures were 71.2% men, 28.8% women, and 9.4% racial/ethnic minorities. See Table 2.

  • Finally, among all partners, the equity/non-equity split stood at about 58%/42%. Slightly less than half of partners were male equity partners; just over 10% were women equity partners; and just over 3% were minority equity partners. (Again, minorities are also included in the counts by gender.) See Table 3.

In the fifth year of collecting this kind of information, firms have become more familiar with reporting this information, making year-to-year comparison more meaningful. Nonetheless, small changes should not be given undue emphasis or necessarily construed as a trend. Nor, given how closely some firms hold the information about equity and non-equity demographics, is it possible to know the extent to which the equity/non-equity information reported — and covering about 61% of partners in multi-tier firms — is representative of all partners in these firms. It is the case that coverage has increased from about 50% in 2011.

To the extent that possible trends in the data can be identified based over the five-year period, it does seem to be the case that the distribution of all partners by equity status is moving, albeit in the smallest increments, toward a greater representation by women and minorities, just as women and minorities have made small gains in representation among partners as a whole. For instance, between 2011 and 2015, the percent of all partners who were male equity partners fell from 61.3% to 58.3%, while the percent of all partners who were women equity partners rose from 9.5% to about 10% in the two most recent years, and the percent of all partners who were minority equity partners rose from 2.9% to 3.3%. See Table 3. Similarly, the percent of equity partners who were men in 2011 was 84.4%, and fell to 82.6% in 2015. During the same period, the percent of equity partners who were women rose from 15.6% to 17.4%, and the percent of equity partners who were minority rose from 4.7% to 5.6%. See Table 2.

It should be noted that this data has been collected during a period in which the balance between equity and non-equity partners at multi-tier firms has been changing. Over the five years that NALP has been collecting this data, the percentage of all partners in two-tier partnerships who are equity partners has declined overall (by about 4 percentage points). So the finding that the percentage of partners who are male equity partners has also declined by about 4 percentage points, while percentages for women and minorities have fluctuated somewhat but not lost ground, may be a positive sign.

To determine whether an individual law firm or law office is a multi-tier firm and to determine whether multi-tier demographic data was submitted for a specific firm, you can review the directory information the firm submitted at www. nalpdirectory.com.

Table 1. Percent of Partners Reported as Equity Partners by Gender or Minority Status

  2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Men partners 16,134 18,278 18,083 17,641 17,476
  % equity 64.9% 64.2% 63.6% 63.5% 61.8%
Women partners 4,104 4,578 4,778 4,835 4,971
  % equity 47.0% 46.4% 47.4% 47.7% 45.8%
Minority partners 1,229 1,423 1,562 1,549 1,617
  % equity 47.1% 46.8% 47.2% 48.5% 45.5%

Table 2. Distribution of Equity and Non-equity Partners by Gender or Minority Status

  2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Equity partners 12,396 13,864 13,760 13,508 13,078
  % men 84.4% 84.7% 83.5% 82.9% 82.6%
  % women 15.6% 15.3% 16.5% 17.1% 17.4%
  % minority 4.7% 4.8% 5.4% 5.6% 5.6%
Non-equity partners 7,842 8,992 9,101 8,968 9,369
  % men 72.3% 72.7% 72.4% 71.8% 71.2%
  % women 27.7% 27.3% 27.6% 28.2% 28.8%
  % minority 8.3% 8.4% 9.1% 8.9% 9.4%

Table 3. Distribution of All Partners by Equity Status and Gender or Minority Status

  2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Total partners 20,238 22,856 22,861 22,476 22,447
% equity 61.3% 60.7% 60.2% 60.1% 58.3%
% men equity 51.7% 51.4% 50.3% 49.8% 48.1%
% women equity 9.5% 9.3% 9.9% 10.3% 10.1%
% minority equity 2.9% 2.9% 3.2% 3.3% 3.3%
% non-equity 38.7% 39.3% 39.8% 39.9% 41.7%
% men non-equity 28.0% 28.6% 28.8% 28.7% 29.7%
% women non-equity 10.7% 10.7% 11.0% 11.2% 12.0%
% minority non-equity 3.2% 3.3% 3.6% 3.5% 3.9%

Note: Figures are based on 234 offices/firms that have a tiered partnership and also reported information on equity and non-equity partner counts. A number of firms that otherwise reported information on an office-by-office basis reported their partnership information on a firm-wide basis. Minorities are also counted as men or women, hence percentages add to more than the total.

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