Recent research from NALP reveals that attorneys of color account for 3.71% of the partners in the nation's major law firms and that women account for 16.30% of the partners in these firms. These numbers suggest that, relative to total headcounts, women attorneys and attorneys of color are under-represented among partnership ranks at these firms. However, these figures also document a continuing, albeit small, increase from data compiled in 2001. The presence of women attorneys and attorneys of color in large law firms has been rising steadily since 1993 — at that time attorneys of color accounted for 2.55% and women accounted for 12.27% of partners.
These are among the findings of NALP's recent analyses of the 2002-2003 NALP Directory of Legal Employers, the annual compendium of legal employer data published by NALP. The 2002 Directory consisted primarily of large firm listings and included attorney demographic information for almost 111,000 partners, associates, staff attorneys and senior attorneys in about 615 firms nationwide.
The current data reveals that, nationally, women attorneys hold 42.42% of positions as associates or staff/senior attorneys, thus quite closely reflecting their respective representation among recent law school graduates. However, at 14.27%, attorneys of color lagged in their representation among recent graduates. Attorneys of color are defined as including African-Americans, Asian/Pacific Islanders, American Indians, and Hispanics of any race. Women attorneys and attorneys of color were best represented among summer associates; 19.19% of summer associates were of color, while women accounted for about 48% of summer associates, as illustrated in the attached table.
A parallel analysis of the 38 cities with the most attorneys accounted for in the Directory revealed considerable variations of these measures. Among the largest of these cities, Los Angeles and San Francisco were the most consistently high in representation of both women attorneys and attorneys of color across all levels. Attorneys of color accounted for 7.35% and 5.77% of partners in these cities respectively, and women accounted for 17.49% and 21.75% of partners, respectively. Offices in smaller cities - Austin, Baltimore, Denver, Detroit, Miami, Raleigh/Durham, San Diego, San Jose, and Seattle - reported at least 18% of partners were women. Miami had the highest percentage of partners of color (19.13%) of all cities, followed by the San Jose area at 8.32%.
Offices in Los Angeles, Miami, San Francisco, and the San Jose area ranked highest on representation of attorneys of color among associates, where representation was one in five or greater. Representation of women among associates was highest in Baltimore, Boston, Cincinnati, Hartford, and San Francisco. Conversely, some cities, such as Charlotte, Cleveland, Columbus, Milwaukee, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Nashville, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Richmond, Tampa/St. Petersburg, and Wilmington were below average on both measures, and considerably so with respect to associates of color.
Miami's higher representation of attorneys of color (most of whom are reported as Hispanic) was also reflected in figures for summer associates; summer associates of color accounted for almost half of those reported. Other cities ranking relatively high on this measure included Newark, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and the San Jose area.
A similar analysis of 7 states with substantial Directory representation beyond that for specific cities also yielded interesting findings. In Virginia, representation of women attorneys and attorneys of color among partners, associates, and summer associates was generally below average, whereas the opposite was true of Texas and California. Representation of attorneys of color among associates and partners was lowest in Michigan and New York.
Women and Attorneys of Color at Law Firms — 2002
Note: The count of offices, shown in the last column, indicates the number of offices with demographic information on partners and associates. The number of offices with demographics for summer associates is somewhat less. The associates category includes senior and staff attorneys. The Detroit area includes offices in Bingham Farms, Bloomfield Hills and Southfield. The Kansas City area includes offices Leawood and Overland Park. Orange County includes offices in Costa Mesa, Irvine, and Newport Beach. Portland, OR includes offices in Lake Oswego. The San Jose area includes offices in Menlo Park, Palo Alto, San Jose, and Sunnyvale. The Seattle area includes offices in Bellevue and Kirkland. State information excludes any cities listed separately. Foreign offices are excluded from these analyses.
Source: NALP, 2002 NALP Directory of Legal Employers.
|Addtional Info:||About NALP: Founded in 1971 as the National Association for Law Placement, Inc.,® NALP — The Association for Legal Career Professionals — is dedicated to facilitating legal career counseling and planning, recruitment and retention, and the professional development of law students and lawyers. To contact NALP, call 202-835-1001.|